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Islam: God's Message of Guidance to Humanity

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

Table of Contents  

I. Introduction: Basic Information   

1. Islam: A Brief Introduction    

2. Three Levels of Faith: Islam, Iman, and Ihsan    

3. The Scientific Evidence That God Exists and the Holy Qur'an Is His Message to Humanity    

4. Creation and Evolution in the Holy Qur'an   

5. Humans, As God's Caliphs on Earth   

6. Adam's Contest With the Angels, and Getting Out of Paradise  

7. Worshippers By Choice Or Forced Slaves?    

8. The Relationship Between the Spiritual and the Physical Aspects of Islamic Teachings   

9. Mind, Self, Soul, Spirit, and Happiness from an Islamic Perspective 

10. Heart-Mind Relationship in the Holy Qur'an    

II. Islam: The Five Pillars of the Faith Structure  

1. Islamic Proclamation of Faith 

2. Performing Islamic Prayers 

3. Giving Zakat, Charity, The Third Islamic Duty 

4. Fasting and Ramadhan, Great Gifts from Allah to Muslims 

5. Haj, Pilgrimage, the Fifth Pillar of Islam 

III. Iman: Allah, His Angels, Messengers, Messages, Latter Day, and Qadar  

1. Allah, As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran    

2. Angels  

3. Noo'h, Noah, in the Holy Quran     

4. Ibrahim, Abraham, in the Holy Quran

5. Moussa, Moses, in the Holy Quran  

6. 'Eissa, Jesus Christ, in the Holy Quran    

7. Muhammed in the Holy Quran   

8. Prophet Muhammed's Night Journey and Ascent to Heavens, Al-Issra Wal Mi'raj  

9. Latter Day (Day of Resurrection)  

10. Qada and Qadar: God's Foreknowledge and His Decree  

IV. I'hsan: Watching Allah in What We Say and What We Do  

1. Introduction to Islamic Law, Shari'a, Part I, Prohibition, Don't Do, and Do Commands in the Holy Quran

2. The La (No) Commands  

3. The Imperative Commands  

***

Articles with Islamic Perspective:

Health Care Crisis in the US: An Islamic Perspective

"Terrorism" & "Islamo-Fascism" Propaganda Campaigns: An Interactive Lecture

Six Questions About Islam, Muslims and Jews

Five Islamic Issues: Predestination and choice, position toward other religions, angels, and the End of Days

Food Islamic Rules and Teachings
 

Are Muslim women second-class citizens  

The French Ban on Islamic Headscarf, an Interview with

Links to Islamic Topics 2007-2010

Links to Islamic Topics 2007

Links to Islamic topics 2006

Links to Islamic topics 2005

Links to Islamic topics 2004

Links to Islamic topics, 2003

2002 Links to Islamic topics

 

 

Islam:

God's Message of Guidance to Humanity

10

Heart-Mind Relationship in the Holy Quran

***

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

Revised on 17th of Rabi' Al-Thani, 1440 - 24th of December 2018

***

 

ٰ  

 

I seek refuge with God from the Stoned Shaytan

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

Introduction 

The Holy Quran refers to the heart as a processor of information, particularly concerning emotions, morality, and reasoning. This reference to the heart as such attracts attention to the relationship between the heart and the brain and its mind, in general, but particularly between the heart and the human self, as it is the active part of the mind, which makes decisions.

This Chapter starts by listing down the Quran verses which describe the heart, in order to shed some light on the mind-heart relationship. This is followed by a review of some academic research studies about the subject, in order to explain such relationship from a scientific viewpoint. Finally, the Chapter will be concluded by a comparison between the Quran descriptions of the heart and the scientific explanations of the heart-mind relationship.

Verses mentioning the heart in the Holy Quran 

The word "heart" is mentioned in the Holy Quran 132 times, in 126 verses. It is mentioned 19 times as a singular noun, once in a dual form, and 112 times in a plural form. These verses describe the heart with four categories of good, bad, weak, and reasoning characteristics. This means that the human heart has its own mind, with its own memory. It also has its own self, which deals with the information analysis, morality issues, and decision-making. [1] 

The first category of the heart characteristics includes such good qualities as being sound, repentant, calm, guided, loving, righteous, merciful, healthy, good, pure, decorated with faith, open to faith, tender, brave, and devoted. Here are three examples, which describe the heart as good.

ۡ ٱ ۡ۬ ۬ ( 26: 89).

Except he, who came to Allah with a sound heart (Al-Shuara, 26: 89) 

ۡ ٱٰۡ ٱۡۡ ٓ ۡ۬  ( 50: 33).

Who feared the unseen Al-Rahman (The Merciful), and came with a repentant heart (Qaf, 50: 33) 

ۡ ۥ ۡٮٕۢ ٱٰۡ ( 16: 106).

 ... and his heart assured (calm) by faith (Al-Nahl, 16: 106). 

The second category of the heart characteristics includes such bad qualities as harsh, sinning, heedless, deviant, blind, restless, disgusted, closed, hardened (cruel), purposeful in wrong-doing, regretful, ill-willed, rejecting, vexed, suspicious, hypocrite, denier, and distracted. Here are three examples, which describe the heart as bad: 

 ( 3: 159).

If you were severe (rude) or harsh-hearted (in treating them), they would have left you (Al-E-Imran, 3: 159).

ۡ ٱٰۚ ڪۡۡ  ۥۤ ۬ ۡ ( 2: 283). 

Do not conceal the testimony. And whoever conceals it his heart is sinning (Al-Baqara, 2: 283) 

ٰ ۚ ( 2: 74).

Then your hearts became hardened (cruel) after that, being like stones or even harder (Al-Baqara, 2: 74).

The third category of the heart characteristics includes such weak qualities as empty, needs support, sick, and terrified. Here are three examples, which describe the heart as weak.

ٰ ۖ ٰ ( 28: 10).

And the heart of Moses' mother became empty (of all else). She was about to disclose (the matter concerning) him had We not bound fast (supported) her heart that she would be of the believers (Al-Qasas, 28: 10).

ۡ ٱ ۡۦ ۬ ( 33: 32). 

... lest the one in whose heart there is sickness should aspire (to you). (Al-Ahzab, 33: 32) 

( 33: 10).

(Remember) when eyes shifted (in fear), and hearts reached the throats (became terrified) and you assumed about Allah (various) assumptions (Al-Ahzab, 33: 10).

The fourth category of the heart characteristics includes such reasoning qualities as thinking, reasoning, being able to receive inspiration, and earner of rewards or punishment. Here are three examples, which describe the heart as weak:

﴿١٩٣﴾ ٰ ﴿١٩٤﴾ ( 26: 193-194).

The Trustworthy Spirit has brought it down (193) Upon your heart, (O Muhammad) that you may be of the warners (194) (Al-Shuara, 26: 193-194).

ۖ ( 7: 179).

And We have created for Hell many of the jinn and humans (because) they have hearts with which they do not understand (Al-Aaraf, 7: 179).

ۡ ٱۡۡ ۡ ۬ ۡ ٓ ۡ ۬ ۡ ǝۖ ۡ ٱٰۡۡ ٰ ۡ ٱۡ ٱ ٱ ( 22: 32).

Have they not traveled throughout the Earth, with hearts to reason with, and ears to hear with? Truly, it is not the eyes that become blind but do the hearts which are in the chests (Al-Hajj, 22: 46). [2]  

***  

Hadiths (sayings of the Prophet) describe the heart as humbled in submission to God or not humbled, tender or cruel, capable of giving opinions about right and wrong, and capable of imagination, as mentioned in the following examples. 

Companion Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him (mAbpwh), narrated that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah may be upon him (pbbuh), said (meaning translation):  

Oh Allah! I ask you for beneficial knowledge, humbled heart, satisfied self, and answered supplication (Al-Tirmidhi: 3482, Abu Dawood: 1549).

Companion Abu Hurayra (mAbpwh) also narrated that a man complained to the Prophet (pbbuh) that he had a cruel heart. The Prophet said to him:

If you want to make your heart tender (kind), feed the needy and pat the head of the orphan (Ahmed:2/263 and authenticated by Al-Albani).

Further, Companion Abu Hurayra (mAbpwh) narrated that the Prophet (pbbuh) said:

Allah said: I have prepared for my righteous worshippers what an eye has never seen, what an ear has never heard, and what a human heart has never imagined (A Holy Hadith, recorded by Al-Bukhari: 3072 and Muslim: 2824).

Companion Wabisa Bin Mabid (mAbpwh) also narrated that the Prophet (pbbuh) said (meaning translation):Ask your heart and yourself for (legal or moral) rulings (He said that three times).

Righteousness is what yourself and your heart are content with. Sinning is what yourself is discontented with and is echoed (with the same discontentment) in the chest (heart), no matter what opinions people gave you (Narrated by Ahmed: 29/523, authenticated by Al-Nawawi and Al-Albani, as a good Hadith). [3]   

The heart-mind relationship, through some scientific research studies  

There are nine verses which mention that Allah, praise to Him, knows what is in the chests, what the chests hide, and that the Holy Quran heals what is in the chests. Thus, there should be no confusion or doubt that these verses refer to the heart, which is in the chest, not to the brain, which is in the head, as clearly pointed in Verse 22: 46, mentioned above. However, the heart and the brain have their own minds, which are continuously communicating and interacting with each other. [4]  

Many academic researchers found that the heart has its own mind, just like the brain does. They also found that there is a strong relationship between the heart and the brain, as well as between their two minds. Here is a short review of some of their findings, just as examples, but by no means, this is a survey or a review of the literature. [5]

Rayl (2016) mentions that there is a two-way biological superhighway, connecting emotions (which is a mental function) and the heart. Chronic stress and events with certain emotional themes can kick off an inflammatory process that leads people to both depression and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, inflammation can start with heart disease, which then causes stress and eventually depression. Thus, the heart will be affected by traumatic mental incidents, such as in the case of a person who is quick to anger and fast to explode. [6]

Martin (2006) mentioned that he and his team spent the last 15 years studying the heart physically, emotionally and spiritually. They mapped the communication pathways between the heart, the brain, and the rest of body. They learned that the heart is the master controller in the human system. It is capable of sending powerful, healing commands throughout the entire body. These commands from the heart have a dynamic impact on the nervous, hormonal, and immune systems. Moreover, they also found that these commands influence brain functions and have the ability to improve cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, and psychological problems. [7]

Shah and others (2003) mention that there is a relationship between emotions and psyche (mind) on one side and heart disease on the other. There is evidence linking cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric disorders and the possible mechanisms and pathophysiology of this association. There is also a possible role of using mood enhancing therapies (mainly antidepressants) and their safety in patients with cardiovascular disorders. [8]

 Shah et al (2003 - 2) also mention that there is a plausible biological basis for the association between psychiatric morbidity (mind) and cardiovascular (heart) disease. Anxiety, panic disorder, and depression are common in patients with coronary heart disease and hypertension. [9] 

Cynthia Chatfield (2004) reviewed the research studies conducted by Candace Pert, which has provided scientific evidence that a biochemical basis for awareness and consciousness exists, that the mind and body are indeed one, and that our emotions and feelings are the bridge that links the two. Pert explains that we are one system; the brain is integrated into the body, at a molecular level. Thus, our bodies are in fact our subconscious mind, and our emotions are located throughout our minds and bodies. She further explained that we are made of highly complex psychosomatic communication networks of information molecules. This means that we are not brain centric at all, and that a state of mind is actually a state of consciousness in the body as well. [10] 

Pearsall et al. (2005) published the findings of their study about the heart-mind relationship, including their summary of the personality changes which happen to people after heart transplant surgeries. They mentioned that the heart recipient may also receive some of the personality traits of the donor, such as memories, habits, behaviors, and preferences. This means that the transplanted heart continues to keep its previous memories, which were formed during the donors life. They also found that the transplanted heart influences the recipients mind to adopt some traits of the donors personality. They checked the reported changes by asking the donors family members and friends about them, as well as by comparing them with medical or official records. The researchers emphasized that the recipients did not know that donors used to have these personality traits (See details about the ten studied cases in the Appendix to this Chapter). [11]    

Conclusion  

There is a very close and interactive relationship between the heart and the mind, particularly in dealing with emotions and in reaction to the incidents a person is faced with.

People with optimistic and good life style enjoy peace of the mind and calmness of the heart. However, pessimism and suffering from life problems may be associated with mental and cardiac disorders. 

Thus, a persons basic good characteristics, such as love, appreciation, care, tolerance, sharing, understanding, and helping others, may bring peace of the mind and calmness of the heart, making his/her life better and more enjoyable. 

There is evidence for the fact that the heart reasons, makes decisions, and performs functions which serve the welfare and well-being of the body as a whole. This is representing by its healing signals, which have a dynamic impact on the nervous, hormonal, and immune systems.

The heart is like the brain in that each one of them has its own mind (software). The brain cells house the mind, which contains the information coming to the brain cells through the senses, as well as the processes of such information and making decisions about them (the human self).

Similarly, the heart cells also receive information from other body organs, including the brain and its mind. Then, the heart processes such information and makes decisions about it, for the welfare and well-being of the body as a whole. This means that the heart also has its own mind and it reasons, just like the brain does.

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Notes

[1] The mentioned numbers of verses, containing specific words related to the heat, are based on the search function of the Holy Quran in Arabic, at www.tanzil.net.

The other source the author used for this purpose was "The Holy Quran Index," in Arabic, by Muhammed Fuad Abdul Baqi. Cairo: Dar Al-Fikr. 1406 (1986). The Arabic Title is: Al-Mujam Al-Mufahras Li Alfadht Al-Quran Al-Kareem (Pages 549-551).

The Arabic texts of the Holy Quran verses in this Chapter were taken from www.tanzil.net and from www.quranexplorer.com.

The word "heart" is mentioned in the Holy Quran 132 times, in various forms. It is mentioned 6 times as heart (qalb), 3 times as your heart (qalbuka), 8 times as his heart (qalbuhu), once as her heart (qalbuha), once as my heart (qalbi), once as dual hearts (qalbayn) in reference to two hearts, 21 times as hearts (quloob), 15 times as your hearts (quloobikum), 6 times as our hearts (quloobuna), 68 times as their hearts (quloobuhum) addressing men, once as their hearts (quloobuhin) addressing women, and once as dual hearts (quloobikuma) addressing two people.

[2] The Holy Quran verses mentioned four categories of characteristics a heart may have. These are good, bad, weak, and reasoning characteristics.

In the first category of good characteristics, the heart is described as sound (26: 89), repentant (50: 33), calm or assured (16: 106), guided (64: 11), loving (33: 4), righteous (22: 32), tranquil (48: 4), merciful (57: 27), reconciled (3: 103), good (8: 63), pure (33: 53), decorated with faith (49: 7), faith enters it (49: 14), reconciled with love (8: 63), softened (39: 23), and humbled (57: 16).

In the second category of bad characteristics, the heart is described as harsh (3: 169), sinning (2: 283), heedless (18: 28), swerved (9: 117), deviated (66: 4), blind (22: 46), turned about (24: 37), disgusted (39: 45), closed (47: 27), cruel (2: 74), intentional in wrong-doing (33: 5 and 2: 225), regretful as a result of disbelief (3: 156), wrapped with disbelief (2: 88), hateful or has a grudge (59: 10), averse (9: 8), angry (9: 15), hypocrite (9: 77), denier of the hereafter (16: 22), playful or distracted (21: 3), and bigot (48: 26).

In the third category of weak characteristics, the heart is described as empty (28: 10), sick (24: 50, 33: 32, 74: 31), terribly afraid (33: 10), terrified (3: 151), and trembling from fear (79: 8).  

In the fourth category of reasoning characteristics, the heart is described as able to receive inspiration (26: 194), understanding (7: 179), and reasoning (22: 46).

[3] There are nine verses which refer to the heart as located in the human chest. These are 3: 154, 8: 43, 10: 57, 22: 46, 39: 7, 40: 19, 57: 6, 64: 4, and 100: 10. These verses mention that Allah knows what is in the chests, what the chests hide, and that the Holy Quran heals what is in the chests. Thus, there should be no confusion between the heart, which is in the chest, and the brain, which is in the head. However, while both communicate with each other, each one of them has a mind of its own, with which it reasons.

[4] The Arabic texts of the four Hadiths, which describe the heart, are as follows:

: " " ( ). 

: " " ( ). 

: : " : " ( ). 

: " ( ). . " ( ).

[5] See the short literature review by Khalid Al-Ebrahim, which he reviewed 24 studies about the relationship between the heart and the mind.

Khaled Al-Ebrahim. 2016. The Intellectual Heart. Department of Surgery, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.  

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/307410420_The_intellectual_heart 

[6] Rayl, A. G. S. 2016. "The High Price of a Broken Heart," PsychologyToday.com (June 9).

https://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200707/the-high-price-broken-heart

[7] Martin, Howard. 2006. "Understanding the Relationship Between Heart, Mind & Body." In Light Times, (March).

http://www.inlightimes.com/old_site/archives/2006/03/heart-body-mind.htm

[8] Shah, S U, A White, S White, W A Littler. 2003. "Heart and mind: (1) relationship between cardiovascular and psychiatric conditions." Post Graduate Medical Journal, Volume 80, Issue 950.

http://pmj.bmj.com/cgi/content/abstract/80/950/683  

[9] Shah, S U, Z Iqbal, A White, S White. 2003. "Heart and mind: (2) psychotropic and cardiovascular therapeutics." Post Graduate Medical Journal, Volume 81, Issue 951.

http://pmj.bmj.com/cgi/content/abstract/81/951/33

[10] Cynthia Chatfield. 2004. Your Body is your Subconscious Mind: Mind-Body Medicine Becomes the Science of Psychoneuroimmunolgy (PNI). Healing Cancer. Info.

http://www.healingcancer.info/ebook/candace-pert  

Pert, Candace B. 1999. Molecules of Emotion: The Science Behind Mind-Body Medicine. Scribner.

https://www.simonandschuster.com/books/Molecules-of-Emotion/Candace-B-Pert/9780684846347  

[11] Pearsall , Paul P., Gary E. Schwartz, and Linda G. Russek. 2005. Organ Transplants and Cellular Memories. Nexus Magazine, Volume 12, Number 3 (April - May).

https://www.paulpearsall.com/info/press/3.html

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Appendix to Chapter 10

Changes to Personality Traits After Heart Transplant Surgeries

Heres a summary of ten cases studied by Pearsall et al. (2005) about changes in personality traits, which happened to recipients after heart transplant surgeries, particularly in memories, habits, preferences, and behaviors. The researchers emphasized that the recipients did not know that donors used to have these personality traits.

The first heart donor (Paul) was an 18-year-old boy, who was killed in an automobile accident. His father said that he used to write poetry and play a guitar. He wrote a song in which he mentioned that he was giving his heart to Danny. The recipient was an 18-year-old girl, who was diagnosed with endocarditis and subsequent heart failure. She said that, after the surgery, she started to like music and wanted to start learning how to play the guitar. She considered the donor as her lover, who knew her name, and she felt that she was familiar with his songs.

The second heart donor (Jerry) was a 16-month-old boy, who drowned in a bathtub. The recipient (Carter) was a seven-month-old boy diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot. The donors mother said that when the recipient first saw her, he ran into her and started dubbing his nose against her, just like her son (Jerry) used to do. She felt his energy as her sons energy. She added that when the recipient boy (Carter) became six-years-old, he said the same baby-talk words that her son (Jerry) said and he played with her nose just like her son (Jerry) did. Finally, in the middle of the night, Carter came in and asked to sleep with her and her husband. He cuddled up between them exactly like Jerry did. When they began to cry, he told them not to cry because Jerry (the donor) said everything was okay. The recipients mother said that her son ran into the donors mother and father and called them mama and Daddy when he never did that to any strangers before. Moreover, he developed stiffness and some shaking on his left side, after the surgery. It turned that the donor used to have a mild cerebral palsy mostly on his left side, too.

The third heart donor was a 24-year-old woman who was the victim of an automobile accident. Her sister said that she was a gay artist, who liked to look at a naked woman while painting a landscape scene. The recipient was a 25-year-old male graduate student suffering from cystic fibrosis who received a heart-lung transplant. After the surgery, he started to feel that he had a womans way of thinking about sexuality. His girl-friend mentioned that he became a much better lover, with much more cuddling and hugging. He likes to go shopping, carrying a purse. He goes to museums every week, standing before a painting for minutes, without talking. He loves staring at landscapes.

The fourth heart donor was a 17-year-old black male student, who was a victim of a drive-by shooting. His mother reported that he loved music and was in a violin class. When died in the street, he was hugging his violin case. The recipient was a 47-year-old white male foundry worker diagnosed with aortic stenosis. He reported that he feels guilty after having sex with his wife, thinking that a black man was sleeping with her. He added that he used to hate classical music but now he loves it. His wife reported that he invited his black friends over from work, for the first time, as he doesn't see their color any more. She added that he was never interested in classical music and never listened to it before. Now, he sits for hours and listens to it. He even whistles classical music songs that he could never know.

The fifth heart donor was a 19-year-old woman, who was killed in an automobile accident. Her mother reported that she was vegetarian and loved men. When she was dying, she wrote a note about the impact of the car hitting her. The recipient (Susie) was a 29-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with cardiomyopathy secondary to endocarditis. She reported that she could no longer eat meat, stopped being interested in women, and spoke about feeling the accident the donor had. Her brother corroborated what she said about her new vegetarian and heterosexual tendencies.

The sixth heart donor (Gus) was a 14-year-old girl, who was injured in a gymnastics accident. Her mother reported that she was a gymnast who used to hop and jump all the time. She also used to giggle when she got embarrassed, and she was anorexic, skipping meals and throwing up food. The recipient was a 47-year-old man, who was diagnosed with benign myxoma and cardiomyopathy. He reported that, after the surgery, he started to feel young, as a teenager. He would giggle, which bothered his wife. Finally, when he would feel hungry and eat, he then feel nauseated, which induces throwing up the food. The recipients brother corroborated what he said about feeling young, giggling, and vomiting food.

The seventh heart donor (Jimmy) was a 3-year-old girl, who drowned in the family pool, when her teenage baby sitter was on the phone and her mother was away with her boyfriend. She never saw her father, as her parents were divorced. The recipient was a 9-year-old boy, who was diagnosed with myocarditis and septal defect. His mother reported that he used to love water and the lake before the surgery but became afraid of water afterwards. The recipient, who did not know anything about the donor, reported that he talks to her sometimes and that she is sad and afraid. She also says, she wishes that parents wouldn't throw away their children.

The eighth heart donor (Stacy) was a 19-year-old woman, who had suffered a broken neck in a dance class. The donor's mother reported that she wanted to be an actress but she had a lot of academic potential. Her father also mentioned her love for singing and dancing and his desire that she would go to Harvard to become a physician, instead of going to Hollywood to become an actress. The recipient (Angela) was a 19-year-old woman diagnosed with cardiomyopathy. She reported that she would think of the donor as her sister. She talks to her and feels that she wanted to be more an actress than a nurse. So, the recipient now wants to be a nurse or a doctor, changing her college classes, hoping that her donor be happy.

The ninth heart donor (Timmy) was a 3-year-old boy, who fell from an apartment window. The recipient (Daryl) was a 5-year-old boy, who had septal defect and cardiomyopathy. The donors mother reported that when she met with the recipient, he looked at her with the same smile of her son. She also learned that the recipient (Daryl) made up the name Timmy for himself, and recognized his right age. The recipient (Daryl) identified several facts about the donor. He called him Tim, who was half of his age, used to play with Power-Ranger toys, and who fell down. The recipient's mother reported that Timmy fell trying to reach a Power-Ranger toy that had fallen on the ledge of the window. So, Daryl won't even touch his Power-Rangers any more.

The tenth heart donor (Carl) was a 34-year-old police officer, who was shot attempting to arrest a drug dealer. The donor's wife reported that the police knew the drug dealer, who shot her husband in the face. He had long hair and a beard. The recipient (Ben) was a 56-year-old college professor, who was diagnosed with atherosclerosis and ischaemic heart disease. He reported that, after the surgery, he began to dream of seeing a glimpse of a bearded man (who looks like pictures of Jesus), followed by flash lights on his face, which caused his face to become very hot, and actually burning.

Pearsall , Paul P., Gary E. Schwartz, and Linda G. Russek. 2005. Organ Transplants and Cellular Memories. Nexus Magazine, Volume 12, Number 3 (April - May).

https://www.paulpearsall.com/info/press/3.html

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About the Author and the Book:

* The author of this book has a Ph.D. in Sociology and a Masters degree in Cultural Anthropology. He was born in Gaza, Palestine in 1369 Hijriya (1950) but he has been living in the United States since 1986.
 
The authentic Quran Arabic text is used as a reference for the translation of the meanings of the Quran verses, particularly from www.tanzil.net
.

The works of the three renowned Islamic scholars Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer, have been used throughout the chapters of this book, as these are the most credited interpretations of the Holy Quran, for their use of 'Hadith, companions' interpretations, and their thorough knowledge of the Arabic language.

  ( 61: 8).  

They want to extinguish the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah will perfect His light, although the disbelievers dislike it (Al-Saff, 61: 8). 

 

Opinions expressed in various sections are the sole responsibility of their authors and they may not represent Al-Jazeerah's.

editor@aljazeerah.info