Islam: A Scientific View of God's Message to Humanity
By Hassan Ali El-Najjar
Table of Contents
II. Islam: The
Five Pillars of the Faith Structure
Allah, His Angels, Messengers, Messages, Latter Day, and Qadar
Watching Allah in What We Say and What We Do
2. The La (No) Commands
3. The Imperative Commands
*** Articles with Islamic
Articles with Islamic Perspective:
A Scientific View of God's Message to Humanity
The Relationship Between the Spiritual and Physical Aspects of Islamic Teachings
By Hassan Ali El-Najjar
Shawwal 22, 1428, November 2, 2007
Revised on 25th of Dhul Qi'da, 1439 - 7th of August 2018
العَلَاقَةُ مَا بَيْنَ النَّوَاحِي الرُّوحِيَةِ وَالْجَسَدِيَّةِ فِي التَّعَاليمِ الإسْلَامِيَّةِ
بقلم حسن علي النجار
أعوذُ باللهِ منَ الشيطانِ الرجيم
بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
I seek refuge with God from the Stoned Shaytan
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Every living being is composed of body and soul, in comparison with non-living objects, like rocks, which are composed of body only. The soul of living beings on Earth is located in the brain, and it is composed of at least three main interrelated components.
The first component of the soul represents the inherent original software of life, which God, the Eternally Living, the Originator, installed into the first cell, which evolved into various life forms. The original software of life has become the logistical command and control center, which is charged with the automatic functioning of the body organs.
The second component of the soul is represented by the mind software, which enables the living organism to collect information for its own benefit. In doing so, it depends on the normal functionality of the original software of life. Thus, the mind is the entire body of knowledge an organism receives in its entire life, through its senses and through synthetic analysis of the acquired knowledge.
The third component of the soul is represented by the morality software, which God blew from His Spirit in humans, thus distinguishing them from other organisms, as pointed in Chapter 4. It enables humans to create the moral self (personality), through the interaction with others, as well as through successive decision-making and analyses, on the basis of the mentally-acquired knowledge. Two major ideal types of the human “self” have been identified for thousands of years, which are the good and the evil types. However, logically speaking, a spectrum of possibilities lies between the two types.
This means that the body internal and external organs are controlled by the inherent life software and that the mind is charged with data collection and processing in all organisms. For humans, the self is the climax of the spiritual side of their existence. It’s charged with the decision-making, not only about what benefits them, but also about what’s right and wrong in their life.
Thus, the physical aspects of the human existence are not only inseparable from its spiritual aspects, but they are also subordinate to them, as demonstrated in the following examples of the Islamic teachings.
The Five Main Mandated Islamic Ways of Worship:
Islamic teachings have their own spiritual and physical aspects, both of which are necessary for understanding Islam, God's message of guidance to humanity. If Muslims focus on one aspect only, there would be impairment in understanding their religion .
The spiritual and the physical aspects of the Islamic teachings are inseparable, whether these are related to the daily-life interactions with people and the environment, or to performing the five mandated ways of worshipping Allah ('ibadat): the proclamation of faith, performing prayers, giving zakat (charity), fasting the month of Ramadhan, and making the haj (pilgrimage), for those who are able to do it. 
1. For example, Muslims cannot keep their faith as a secret, unless there is a serious danger threatening their life. Proclaiming openly and publicly that they are Muslims has many benefits to them, other Muslims, and the community they are living in. It is an announcement that the speaker is going to abide by a set of rules, which guide his/her behavior to the betterment of humanity.
When they proclaim publicly that there is no other God than Allah and Muhammed is His messenger, then they are also saying that they are not here, in this life, by accident. There is a Creator Who has created the Universe and He is in charge of it. They also say that they believe in the guidance the Messenger of Allah brought to humanity: The Holy Quran and the Sunna. Thus, the proclamation of faith is not just uttering spoken words, it is an association of these words with deeper meanings, which influence our life. 
2. When Muslims make wudhou' (washing) before performing prayers, it includes physical acts but with clear meanings. Five times a day, washing your hands, mouth, nose, face, arms, ears, hair, and feet aims at cleanliness. This is the essence of the wudhou' requirement. Allah, praise to Him, has required these physical acts, not as meaningless rituals, but to lead to a deeper meaning, cleanliness. He wants humans to be clean and healthy. 
The five Islamic prayers
(at dawn, noon, mid-after-noon, sunset, and dusk), are all physical acts of
standing, bowing, kneeling, prostrating, and sitting down on the ground.
These prayer movements are performed in a certain way taught to Muslims by the
Messenger of Allah, Muhammed, pbbuh. 
At the same time, each one of the prayer movements also involves spiritual aspects, represented by contemplation and thinking about the meaning of the verses of the Holy Quran and the words of praise to Allah, which are recited in each prayer movement. These acts of contemplation and thinking have tremendous benefits in terms of creating and maintaining internal mental peace for the worshipper. More important is that, the five prayers keep the worshippers in a continuous contact with their Creator, which influences their behavior positively, strengthens the human self, and contributes to its well-being.
3. The third mandated Islamic way of worship is Zakat (charity). This is an assistance to the poor in society. It is, at least, 2.5 percent of a person’s annual savings. This is an Islamic act of worshipping God through giving away a small part of what He has given to a person. If we think about the physical act of giving alone, it may not be understood, as it contradicts with the human nature, which attempts to maximize the potential for survival, by amassing as much wealth as possible, to help achieve that goal. However, when we think about the meanings (the spiritual aspects) associated with it, it can be perfectly understood. 
Giving zakat (charity) spreads love, compassion, and mercy in society. It is a practical application of social solidarity. Without it, the poor will be left alone to fend for themselves, which creates feelings of injustice and leads to instability in society. Conversely, Zakat represents a constructive social interaction, in which Zakat recipients feel that there are those who give them a hand and help them in society. Thus, love and compassion spread among people, instead of the harmful negative feelings.
Zakat also means that the wealth of a person may not be the result of his/her work alone. A lot of wealth is inherited directly from parents or relatives. It may be also inherited indirectly because of one's gender, race, ethnicity, national origin, or citizenship status. Moreover, people receive more indirect wealth, in the form of public spending, in such areas as education, health care, roads, and security services. Consequently, they should think of the wealth they have as a gift from Allah, the Ultimate Giver, Who expects them to spend part of it on those who are the less fortunate, in the area of the accumulation of wealth.
Finally, Zakat means purification, in Arabic. Thus, giving assistance to the poor and the needy purifies the self of the giver and makes him/her a purer (better) person, which brings more happiness to him/her, just like the happiness people feel when they assist and care for their children.
4. The fourth mandated Islamic way of worship is fasting during the month of Ramadhan. This means that Muslims abstain from eating, drinking, smoking, and sexual intercourse during the day time. This extends from about one hour before the Sun rises until the Sun sets. 
Without proper understanding of Islam, fasting will be an act of starving and tormenting people. In fact it has so many benefits both to the human body and the human self.
Physically, it strengthens the body through getting rid of unnecessarily gained fats throughout the year. If people fast properly, by doing the same daily activities and eating food normally at the end of the fasting day, they are more likely to lose weight. It has become a fact that losing weight is prescribed by medical doctors as a medication for and prevention of many diseases. It keeps people healthy and looking good.
Fasting is also beneficial for the digestive system organs, like the stomach and the intestines, which are bombarded for many hours every day with a lot of food to process and digest. Fasting the month of Ramadhan gives them a break, which rejuvenates them and makes them more healthy. Moreover, the body gets rid of unhealthy cells by denying them nutrients, as priority goes to the healthy cells first.
Spiritually, fasting leads to contemplation about hunger and hungry people in a person's community and around the world. That's why Muslims are most generous in Ramadhan. It leads to giving charity and other acts of support for and social solidarity with the poor.
Finally, fasting is training for the self that to control body desires and resist the temptation for indulgence in food. Moreover, the strength gained by the self enables it to resist other desires like taking advantage of or controlling others, which are prevalent in our planet at this time.
For all these great physical and spiritual benefits, Muslims around the world end the month of Ramadhan by ‘Eidul Fitr, which is a celebration of breaking the fast. It’s observed by a collective prayer, in which all men, women, and children in the community participate. Then, people enjoy special meals and visit relatives and friends.
5. The fifth mandated Islamic way of worship is the pilgrimage, Haj, to Makkah, at least once in a person's lifetime, if he/she is capable of doing that. This is a visit to the first House of Allah on Earth. There, about three million Muslims gather to confirm their faith as well as remember and act out the story of the Messenger of Allah Ibrahim (Abraham), when he left his son, Ismail, and his wife Hajar (Hagger), there (Peace be upon all of them). Then, when Ismail grew older, his father Ibrahim came to slaughter him in obedience to God, Who was just testing him. They passed the test, and Ibrahim was given a sheep to slaughter instead of his son. Then, the two of them rebuilt Al-Ka'abah, the House of the Lord, and thus the most sacred place of worship for Muslims on Earth. 
The Haj act of worshipping Allah, praise to Him, involves physical as well as spiritual aspects. It requires a lot of walking between the House of the Lord and other holy Makkah areas, like Mena, Arafat, and Muzdalifah, as well as making Tawaf (circling) around Al-Ka'bah and Sa'i (fast walking or running) between Al-Safa and Al-Marwa.
Because it requires physical strength and financial capabilities (travel and lodging expenses), it has been prescribed only on those who are capable to do it, once in a person's life time.
Haj also includes slaughtering an animal and feeding it to the poor. Millions of animals are killed in Makkah then shipped to the poor around in the world. It is a direct benefit to the poor but also gives happiness to the pilgrims as givers.
Spiritually, pilgrims returning from Makkah describe a great feeling of happiness, as their pilgrimage becomes the climax of their spiritual journey in this life. They feel completed and accomplished, which gives them a feeling of content about their existence on this planet. Thus, the pilgrimage to Makkah contributes to spreading happiness and peace around the world.
For the rest of Muslims around the world, the Haj days are observed by contemplating about the meanings of this way of worship (‘ibada), by fasting the day of Arafa, and by celebrating ‘Eidul Adh’ha, in commemoration of the story of the sacrifice. It is a great day of expressing appreciation to their Creator, for all of His blessings, particularly of having good families and prosperous communities.
Examples from Daily-Life Interactions
The Holy Quran and the Sunna guide Muslims in their daily life interactions with people and the environment. In every teaching of Islam, the physical aspects cannot be separated from the spiritual aspects of what Muslims are supposed to do, as they observe the Islamic teachings.
Without proper understanding for this inseparability between the physical and the spiritual aspects of the teachings, some people may get lost or may start exaggerating the physical act, which takes them away from the meaning of the teaching. Here are some daily-life examples about the relationship between the two aspects.
On Friday, Muslims are instructed to take a shower, particularly after sexual intercourse, put on the best clothes they have, and not to eat onions or garlic before coming to the mosque for the weekly collective prayers.
Once in the mosque, Muslims are also instructed to complete the first lines. when they stand for prayers, they need to be connected to each other, leaving no empty spaces between them.
Muslims are also instructed not to be arrogant or bragging in their words, actions, attitudes, or even in their clothing.
Whenever women go out of their homes, they are instructed to cover their body decently, as their beauty should be only shown to their husbands. At home, they can take off some of their clothes in the presence of members of their immediate families (father, mother, brother, sister, uncles, aunts, nieces and nephews). 
Why are Muslims instructed to take a shower, put on the best clothes they have, and not to eat onions or garlic before coming to the mosque for the weekly collective prayers?
All these teachings lead to benefits for them as individuals and as groups but also there are deeper meanings beyond any physical act, which may lead to benefits to the individual, other people involved in the interaction, and to society at large.
Taking a bath (showering) is cleanliness. It benefits the body by removing the sweat and dust. However, it benefits other people in the Mosque, who are sitting close to each other. A shower removes the smelling of human odors that may not be pleasant to others. Most importantly is that worshippers need to be clean, as they speak to their Creator, while they pray to Him. 
Putting on clean and good clothes also benefits the person by feeling good and benefits other people who like to interact with clean people in pleasant contexts. What matters is the cleanliness of clothes, not the colors, as the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, put on different colors of clothes, like white, red, yellow, and green. He also put on green and black head dresses. 
Eating onions and garlic before going to the mosque may leave particles of these foods sticking to the mouth of the person who eats them, thus the smelling may harm other people in the mosque, who may be sensitive to these smells. Then, the teaching here for Muslims is to be careful not to do anything that may cause harm or discomfort to others. This can be generalized to other foods or other odors. 
Why are Muslims instructed to complete the first lines when they stand for prayers? If not, then you may find them scattered irregularly in the Mosque, which is inefficient use of the space, to say the least. Also, being in lines, they become closer to the imam, hearing him clearly. 
When Muslims stand for prayers, they are instructed to be connected to each other, leaving no gaps between them. It is efficient to do so but they don't need to be crowded and too close to the extent of causing discomfort to each other. 
Muslims are also instructed not to be arrogant or bragging in their words, acts, attitudes, or even in their clothing. At the time of revelation, people who had long gowns reaching the ground were described as arrogant or bragging, as poor people had less expensive, short gowns. 
If you take it literally, all Muslims should have shorter pants or gowns (Thoub), but this is not what the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, wanted Muslims to do. Today, pants and gowns come in various lengths but are sold for the same price. So, the length of your pants does not correlate with wealth or poverty and consequently with humility or arrogance.
This way, we can understand why the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, instructed Muslim men not to wear golden ornaments or silk clothes. The goal is that these are used by women for beauty purposes, something men should not try to emulate. 
Finally, whenever women go out of their homes, they are instructed to cover their body, as their beauty should be only shown to their husbands. At home, they can take off some of their clothes in the presence of members of their immediate families (father, mother, brother, sister, uncles, aunts, nieces, and nephews). 
There is a deep meaning here. It's not an attempt to control women. It's a true understanding of the human nature. If followed properly, society will avoid a lot of the problems it faces unnecessarily. It is natural for men to be looking at women, if they see them covered decently, they usually deal with them with respect. Thus, the Islamic teaching for women to wear decent clothing when they are outside is for their own protection and well-being.
Allah, praise to him, has bestowed on humans the gifts of life, knowledge acquisition, and morality, through installing the software of life, mind, and self in them. Using these gifts wisely enables us to understand the meanings of what we do, what is happening around us, and consequently be happy in this life and in the hereafter.
When we think about the Islamic teachings with this perspective, we can see that these are not meaningless rituals. To the contrary, Islamic teachings make perfect sense, as they guide our daily interactions, for our well-being as individuals, communities, and societies. Following them properly requires thinking about the deeper meanings and goals which are associated with them. However, without such thinking, we may go astray, away from what Allah, praise to Him, wants us to understand and do, for our benefit here and in the hereafter.
The Arabic texts of verses mentioned in this Chapter, and throughout this Book, are copied from the www.tanzil.net portal. The basic translations of verses are copied from the Saheeh International, also carried on the same website. However, this author is solely responsible for the final translations, as he made changes to the original translation, when he deemed that needed.
The Arabic interpretations of verses, as well as the Arabic texts of ‘Hadiths mentioned in this Chapter, and throughout this Book, are taken from the www.al-islam.com. However, this author is solely responsible for the final interpretations and translations.
Some of the Arabic texts of ‘Hadiths (Prophet's sayings) mentioned in this Chapter, and other chapters of the Book, are taken from “Riyadh Al-Sali'heen,” which is the title of a book that contains strongly documented 1903 Hadiths of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him (pbbuh). It was written by Imam Abu Zakariya Ya’hya Bin Sharaf Al-Nawawi, who died in 671 Hijriya, May Allah reward him for his great work.
This author verified the authenticity of the cyber version of Riyadh Al-Sali'heen by comparing it with the above-mentioned paper version, as far as the listed Hadiths are concerned. However, there is a difference of three numbers between the cyber and paper versions. For example, ‘Hadith of Sumra is numbered in the paper version as 777 but it is numbered in the cyber version as 780. Another example is the Hadith narrated by Al-Bara', which is numbered in the paper version as 778 but numbered in the cyber version as 781, and so on.
An Arabic-only cyber version is posted on the ‘Hadith Portal website can be accessed at:
An English-translated version of Riyadh Al-Sali'heen, with ‘Hadith numbers in sequence, just like the original paper version, but it is an English-only cyber version, can be accessed at:
An Arabic cyber version with English translation of Riyadh Al-Sali'heen, divided into books (as done by Al-Nawawi), with numbered Hadiths, can be accessed at:
For example, the ‘Hadith number 1082, about straitening prayer lines and completing them, can be found in the Book Number 9 (The Book of Virtues), which contains Hadith's Numbers 991 (988 in the paper version) - 1264 (1267 in the paper version).
حَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُوسَى ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنَا حَنْظَلَةُ بْنُ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ ، عَنْ عِكْرِمَةَ بْنِ خَالِدٍ ، عَنْ ابْنِ عُمَرَ ، رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا قَالَ ، قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ، صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ:
" بُنِيَ الْإِسْلَامُ عَلَى خَمْسٍ ، شَهَادَةِ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ، وَإِقَامِ الصَّلَاةِ ، وَإِيتَاءِ الزَّكَاةِ ، وَالْحَجِّ ، وَصَوْمِ رَمَضَانَ" (صحيح البخاري ، رياض الصالحين رقم 1075).
On the authority of Abu Abdul Rahman Abdullah, the son of Umar Bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with both of them, who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, say:
"Islam has been built on five (pillars): The proclamation that there is no other god than Allah and that Muhammed is the Messenger of Allah, performing the prayers, paying the zakat, making the pilgrimage, and fasting in Ramadhan" (Narrated by Al-Bukhari and listed in Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 1075).
 The declaration of faith is based on such verses in the Holy Quran as 2: 255 and 48: 29, as follows:
اللَّـهُ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ (البقرة ، 2: 255).
مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّـهِ (الفتح ، 48: 29).
Allah! There is no god but He, the Eternally Living, the Sustainer of the Universe (Al-Baqara, 2: 255).
Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah (Al-Fat'h, 48: 29).
 The command for making wudhou' (washing) before prayers is mentioned in verse 5: 6 of the Holy Quran. However, the Verse did not include cleaning the mouth, nose, and ears. These were added details by the Prophet, pbbuh, as a Sunna.
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ فَاغْسِلُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى الْمَرَافِقِ وَامْسَحُوا بِرُءُوسِكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَيْنِ (المائدة ، 5: 6).
O you who have believed! When (before) you rise to (perform) prayer, wash (with water) your faces, your hands and arms to the elbows, touch (rub) over your heads, and your feet to the heels (Al-Maida, 5: 6).
Cleaning the mouth and the nose were mentioned in the following
Cleaning the mouth and the nose were mentioned in the following 'Hadiths:
عن عثمال ولقيط بن
صبره وابن عباس ، رضي الله عنهم ، أن رسول الله ، صلى الله عليه
وسلم ، قال: "إذا توضأت فمضمض"
(رواه أبو داود بإسناد صحيح).
'Uthman, Laqit Bin Sabra, and Ibn
'Abbas, mAbpw them, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh,
said: "When you make wudhou',
clean your mouth (by rinsing it with water then spitting it out)
(This 'Hadith was narrated by Abu Dawood, with
'Abbas, mAbpw them, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: "When you make wudhou', clean your mouth (by rinsing it with water then spitting it out) (This 'Hadith was narrated by Abu Dawood, with Sa'hee'h athentication).
Abu Hurayrah, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh,
said: "When one of you makes wudhou',
let him clean his nose by getting water into it then blowing it out
(Authenticated by Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Malik, Abu Dawood, and Al-Nissa-i).
Abu Hurayrah, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: "When one of you makes wudhou', let him clean his nose by getting water into it then blowing it out (Authenticated by Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Malik, Abu Dawood, and Al-Nissa-i).
C leaning the ears was mentioned in the following narrations
about how the Prophet, pbbuh, did it:
leaning the ears was mentioned in the following narrations about how the Prophet, pbbuh, did it:
روت الرُّبَيِّع ، رضي الله عنها ،
أنها رأت النبي ، صلى الله عليه وسلم ، مسح رأسه ، ما أقبل منه وما
أدبر ، وصدغيه وأذنيه ، مرة واحدة.
روت الرُّبَيِّع ، رضي الله عنها ، أنها رأت النبي ، صلى الله عليه وسلم ، مسح رأسه ، ما أقبل منه وما أدبر ، وصدغيه وأذنيه ، مرة واحدة.
وروى ابن عباس ، رضي الله عنه ، أن
النبي ، صلى الله عليه وسلم ، مسح رأسه وأذنيه ظاهرهما وباطنهما
(وقال الترمذي: حديث ابن عباس وحديث
وروى ابن عباس ، رضي الله عنه ، أن النبي ، صلى الله عليه وسلم ، مسح رأسه وأذنيه ظاهرهما وباطنهما (وقال الترمذي: حديث ابن عباس وحديث الرُّبَيِّع صحيحان).
narrated that she saw the Prophet, pbbuh, touching (rubbing) his
head with water, front and back, his back cheeks, and his ears.
Al-Rubayi', mAbpwh, narrated that she saw the Prophet, pbbuh, touching (rubbing) his head with water, front and back, his back cheeks, and his ears.
'Abbas, mAbpwh, also, narrated that the Prophet, pbbuh, touched
(rubbed) his head and ears, inside and outside (Al-Tirmidhi said
that these are two correct 'Hadiths).
Ibn 'Abbas, mAbpwh, also, narrated that the Prophet, pbbuh, touched (rubbed) his head and ears, inside and outside (Al-Tirmidhi said that these are two correct 'Hadiths).
 The command for establishing prayers and giving Zakat (charity) are mentioned in Surat Al-Baqara (Chapter 2), Verses 43 and 110 of the Holy Quran, as follows:
وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَارْكَعُوا مَعَ الرَّاكِعِينَ (البقرة ، 2: 43).
وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَمَا تُقَدِّمُوا لِأَنفُسِكُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ تَجِدُوهُ عِندَ اللَّـهِ (البقرة ، 2: 110).
And establish prayer and give zakat, and bow with those who bow (in worship) (Al-Baqara, 2: 43).
And establish prayer and give zakat, and whatever good you put forward for yourselves you will find it with Allah. Indeed (Al-Baqara, 2: 110).
 See Verse 2: 43, 110, in Footnote # 4 above.
 The command for fasting during the month of Ramadhan is mentioned in Surat Al-Baqara (Chapter 2), Verse 183 of the Holy Quran, as follows:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ (البقرة ، 2: 183).
O you who have believed, fasting (has been) decreed upon you, as it was decreed upon those before you, that you may become righteous (Al-Baqara, 2: 183).
 The command for the Haj, pilgrimage, is mentioned in Surat Al-'Imran (Chapter 3), Verses 97 of the Holy Quran, as follows:
وَلِلَّـهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلًا (آل عمران ، 3: 97).
And people owe Allah a pilgrimage to the House, by whoever is able to find thereto a way (Al-'Imran, 3: 97).
 The command for the establishment of the Friday, Jumu'a, prayer is mentioned in Surat Al-Jum'a (Chapter 62), Verse 9 of the Holy Quran, as follows:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا نُودِيَ لِلصَّلَاةِ مِن يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ فَاسْعَوْا إِلَىٰ ذِكْرِ اللَّـهِ وَذَرُوا الْبَيْعَ ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ (الجمعة ، 62: 9).
O you who have believed! When the prayer is called for on the day of Jumu'a (Friday), then hasten to the remembrance of Allah, and leave business (trading). That is better for you, if you just know (Al-Jumu'a, 62: 9).
The following are texts of the three ‘Hadiths (Prophet’s sayings) about going to the masjid (mosque) before the start of the khutba (sermon) and listening to it attentively, are as follows:
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ، رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ، صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ، قَالَ:
"إِذَا قُلْتَ لِصَاحِبِكَ أَنْصِتْ ، يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ وَالْإِمَامُ يَخْطُبُ ، فَقَدْ لَغَوْتَ" (صحيح مسلم ، 528).
The ‘Hadith means that you should be listening attentively to the
Friday sermon, the extent that If a person is talking beside you,
you shouldn’t tell him to listen. Instead of speaking, make a sign
for him to stop talking.
وعَنْ أَبي هُريرةَ رَضِيَ اللَّه عَنْهُ ، قالَ: قالَ رسولُ اللَّه ، صَلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وسَلَّم:
"مَنْ تَوَضَّأَ فأَحْسَنَ الوُضُوءَ ثُمَّ أَتى الجُمُعَةَ ، فاسْتَمَعَ وَأَنْصتَ ، غُفِرَ لَهُ مَا بَيْنَه وَبَيْنَ الجُمُعَةِ وزِيَادة ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ ، وَمَنْ مَسَّ الحَصَى ، فَقَدْ لَغَا" (رواه مسلم ، رياض الصالحين رقم 1148).
Whoever makes proper wudu’ (washing) before coming to Friday (Jumu’a) prayer. Then, he/she listens attentively, he/she will be forgiven, from a Friday prayer to another, and three more days, but if he/she touches the floor stones (in distraction), then he/she has committed mundane talk sin (Muslim and Riyadh Al-Sali’heen: 1148).
وَعَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ، رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ، صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ، قَالَ:
“مَنْ اغْتَسَلَ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ غُسْلَ الْجَنَابَةِ ثُمَّ رَاحَ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَرَّبَ بَدَنَةً ، وَمَنْ رَاحَ فِي السَّاعَةِ الثَّانِيَةِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَرَّبَ بَقَرَةً ، وَمَنْ رَاحَ فِي السَّاعَةِ الثَّالِثَةِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَرَّبَ كَبْشًا أَقْرَنَ ، وَمَنْ رَاحَ فِي السَّاعَةِ الرَّابِعَةِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَرَّبَ دَجَاجَةً ، وَمَنْ رَاحَ فِي السَّاعَةِ الْخَامِسَةِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَرَّبَ بَيْضَةً ، فَإِذَا خَرَجَ الْإِمَامُ حَضَرَتْ الْمَلَائِكَةُ يَسْتَمِعُونَ الذِّكْرَ" (صحيح البخاري ، 841).
Whoever takes a bath (shower) on Friday, for purification, then he/she goes to the masjid (mosque) early, it is considered as if he/she sacrificed a camel (to feed the poor, for the sake of Allah). Whoever goes after him/her, it is considered as if he/she sacrificed a cow. Then, it is considered as a goat, a chicken, and an egg, respectively. When the imam starts (to give the sermon), the angels come to listen (and stop recording rewards for those who come late). This ‘Hadith was narrated by Al-Bukhari: 841.
 The following ‘Hadiths (sayings) of the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, are about taking a bath (showering) before coming to the Friday (Jumu'a) prayer and about wudhu' (Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 1148, 1151, 1152)
وَعَن ابنِ عُمَرَ ، رَضِيَ اللَّه عَنْهُمَا ، أَنَّ رَسولَ اللَّهِ ، صَلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وسَلَّم ، قالَ:
"إِذا جاَءَ أَحَدُكُمُ الجُمُعَةَ، فَليَغْتَسِلْ" (متفقٌ عَلَيهِ ، رياض الصالحين رقم 1151).
Ibn Umar (mAbpwh) said that the Messenger of Allah (pbbuh), said:
Each one of you (needs) to take a bath (shower) before coming to the Friday (Jumu’a) prayer.
(An agreed upon ‘Hadith, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 1151).
وعن أَبي سعيدٍ الخُدْرِيِّ ، رَضِيَ اللَّه عَنْهُ ، أَنَّ رسولَ اللَّهِ ، صَلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وسَلَّم ، قالَ:
"غُسْلُ يَوْمِ الجُمُعَةِ وَاجِبٌ عَلَى كلِّ مُحْتَلِمٍ" (متفقٌ عَلَيْهِ ، رياض الصالحين رقم 1152).
Taking a bath (shower) on Friday (before coming to the masjid) is mandatory on every person who reaches puberty (An agreed upon ‘Hadith, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 1152).
عَنْ الْبَرَاءِ بْنِ عَازِبٍ ، رضي الله عنه ، قَالَ ، قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ:
"حَقٌّ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِينَ أَنْ يَغْتَسِلُوا يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ ، وَلْيَمَسَّ أَحَدُهُمْ مِنْ طِيبِ أَهْلِهِ ، فَإِنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَالْمَاءُ لَهُ طِيبٌ" (سنن الترمذي ، 528).
Taking a bath (shower) on Friday (before coming to the masjid) is mandatory on Muslims, with little perfume if available (Sunan Al-Tirmidhi: 528).
 The following ‘Hadith and narrations about the Prophet (pbbuh) are about wearing clothes of different colors: white, red, green, and black, as well as black and yellow hats (Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 780-784):
وعن سَمُرَةَ رضيَ اللَّه عنه ، قال: قالَ رسُولُ اللَّهِ ، صَلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وسَلَّم: "الْبَسُوا البَيَاضَ، فَإِنها أَطْهرُ وأَطَيبُ، وكَفِّنُوا فِيها مَوْتَاكُمْ." (رواهُ النسائي، والحاكم وقال: حديث صحيح ، رياض الصالحين رقم 780).
Sumra (mAbpwh) said that the Messenger of Allah (pbbuh), said:
Wear white clothes and use white coffins, as it (looks) better and more pure.
(Al-Nissa’I, Al-‘Hakim, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 780).
وعن البراءِ ، رضيَ اللَّه عنه ، قَالَ: كانَ رسولُ اللَّهِ صَلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وسَلَّم مَرْبُوعاً وَلَقَدْ رَأَيْتُهُ في حُلَّةِ حمْراءَ مَا رأَيْتُ شَيْئاً قَطُّ أَحْسَنَ مِنْهُ (متَّفقٌ عَلَيْهِ ، رياض الصالحين رقم 781).
وعن رفاعَةَ التَّميْمِيِّ ، رضيَ اللَّه عنه ، قَالَ: رأَيت رسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وسَلَّم وعلَيْه ثوبانِ أَخْضَرانِ (رواهُ أَبو داود ، والترمذي بإِسْنَادٍ صحيحٍ ، رياض الصالحين رقم 783).
Rifa’a Al-Tamimi (mAbpwh) said: I saw the Messenger of Allah (pbbuh) wearing two green (long) shirts.
(Abu Dawood, Al-Tirmidhi, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 783).
وعن جابر بن عبد الله ، رضيَ اللَّه عنه ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ، صَلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وسَلَّم ، دَخَلَ يَوْمَ فَتْحِ مَكَّةَ وعَلَيْهِ عِمامةٌ سوْداءُ (رواهُ مسلم ، رياض الصالحين رقم 784).
Jabir Bin Abdullah (mAbpwh) said that the Messenger of Allah (pbbuh) conquered Makkah while wearing a black head dress.
(Muslim, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 783).
عن أبي هريرة ، رضي الله عنه ، قال: "خرج علينا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، وعليه قميص أصفر ورداء أصفر وعمامة صفراء" (المكتبة الإسلامية).
Abu Hurayrah (mAbpwh) said that the Messenger of Allah (pbbuh) came out (from his home to the masjid) wearing yellow shirt, coat, and head dress.
Source: Islamic library), at:
 The following are texts of ‘Hadiths about brushing teeth before prayers and other ‘Hadiths about avoidance of eating raw onions, garlic, and leek (shallot) before coming to the masjid (mosque), particularly for the weekly Friday prayers, as their strong smelling hurts people and angels alike. These vegetables need to be cooked well, in order to kill their smelling, as Caliph Omar (mAbpwh) said (Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 1703-1704):
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ، رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ، صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ، قَالَ:
"لَوْلَا أَنْ أَشُقَّ عَلَى أُمَّتِي أَوْ عَلَى النَّاسِ لَأَمَرْتُهُمْ بِالسِّوَاكِ عِنْدَ كُلِّ صَلَاةٍ" (صحيح مسلم ، 370).
Abu Hurayrah (mAbpwh) said that the Messenger of Allah (pbbuh), said:
People need to brush their teeth before every prayer but I don’t want to be hard on my Ummah (Community of believers) by making it mandatory (Muslim: 370).
وَعَنْ جَابِرٍ ، رَضِيَ اللَّه عَنْهُ ، قَالَ: قَالَ النَّبيُّ صَلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وسَلَّم:
"مَنْ أَكَلَ ثُوماً أَوْ بَصَلاً ، فَلْيَعْتَزلْنَا ، أَوْ فَلْيَعْتَزلْ مَسْجدَنَا" (متفقٌ عليه ، رياض الصالحين رقم 1703).
"مَنْ أَكَلَ الْبَصَلَ ، وَالثُّوم ، وَالْكُرَاث ، فَلا يَقْرَبَنَّ مسْجِدَنَا ، فَإِنَّ المَلائِكَةَ تَتَأَذَّى مِمَّا يتأَذَّى مِنْهُ بَنُو آدمَ" (رواية مسلم ، رياض الصالحين رقم 1703).
Whoever eats (raw) garlic and onion, let him not come to our mosque, or near us (An agreed upon ‘Hadith, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 1703).
In another version of the ‘Hadith, he said: Whoever eats (raw) garlic, onion, and leek (shallot), let him not come to our mosque, as angels get hurt of things which hurt humans (Muslim version, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 1703).
وَعَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ الخَطَّابِ ، رَضِيَ اللَّه عَنْهُ ، أَنَّهُ خطَبَ يَوْمَ الجُمُعَةِ ، فَقَالَ فِي خُطْبَتِهِ:
ثُمَّ إِنَّكُمْ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ تَأْكُلُونَ شَجَرَتَيْنِ ، مَا أُرَاهُمَا إِلاَّ خَبِيثَتَيْنِ: الْبَصَلَ ، وَالثُّومَ. لَقَدْ رَأَيْتُ رَسولَ اللَّهِ ، صَلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وسَلَّم ، إِذَا وَجَدَ ريحَهُمَا مِنَ الرَّجُلِ فِي المَسْجِدِ أَمَرَ بِهِ ، فَأُخْرِجَ إِلى الْبَقِيعِ. فَمَنْ أَكَلَهُمَا ، فَلْيُمِتْهُمَا طبْخاً (رواه مسلم ، رياض الصالحين رقم 1704).
‘Umar Bin Al-Khattab (mAbpwh) said in one of his Friday (Jumu’a) sermons:
O people! You eat (two bad raw vegetables) garlic and onion. I saw the Messenger of Allah (pbbuh) commanding a man to get out of the mosque if he smells eating them. So, if you want to eat them, kill the smelling by cooking them well (Muslim, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 1704).
 The following two 'Hadiths (sayings of the Prophet, pbbuh) are about straitening prayer lines and completing them (Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 1082 and 1087):
عَن جابِرِ بْنِ سمُرةَ ، رضي اللَّه عنْهُمَا ، قَالَ: خَرجَ عَلَيْنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ، صَلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وسَلَّم ، فَقَالَ:
"أَلا تَصُفُّونَ كَمَا تُصُفُّ الملائِكَةُ عِنْدَ رَبِّهَا؟ " فَقُلْنَا: يَا رسُولَ اللَّهِ ، وَكَيْفَ تَصُفُّ الملائِكةُ عِند ربِّها؟
قَالَ: "يُتِمُّونَ الصُّفوفَ الأُولَ ، ويَتَراصُّونَ في الصفِّ" (رواه مسلم ، رياض الصالحين رقم 1082).
Jabir Bin Sumra (mAbpwh) said that the Messenger of Allah (pbbuh), said:
Don’t you want to line up (in your prayer), like the angels line up near their Lord?
We said: O Messenger of Allah: How do they line up near their Lord?
He said: They complete the lines and they stand tightly beside each other.
وعن أَنسٍ ، رضي اللَّه عنْهُ ، قال: قال رسُولُ اللَّهِ ، صَلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وسَلَّم:
"سَوُّوا صُفُوفَكُمْ ، فَإنَّ تَسْوِيةَ الصَّفِّ مِنْ تَمامِ الصَّلاةِ" (متفقٌ عَلَيهِ)
"فإنَّ تَسوِيَةَ الصُّفُوفِ مِن إِقَامة الصَّلاةِ" (رواية البخاري ، رياض الصالحين رقم 1087).
Anas (mAbpwh) said that the Messenger of Allah (pbbuh), said:
In anothrer version of the 'Hadith, he said: Straighten your lines, as straightening up lines is part of standing for prayer (Al-Bukhari, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 1087).
 The following two ‘Hadiths (sayings of the Prophet, pbbuh) are about leaving no gaps between worshippers when they stand in lines for the collective prayer (Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 1096 and 1091).
وعَنْ أَبي هُريرةَ ، رضِيَ اللَّه عنْهُ ، قَالَ: قالَ رسولُ اللَّهِ ، صَلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وسَلَّم:
"وسِّطُوا الإِمامَ ، وَسُدُّوا الخَلَلَ" (رواه أبُو دَاوُد ، رياض الصالحين رقم 1096).
Abu Hurayrah (mAbpwh) said that the Messenger of Allah (pbbuh), said:
(When you stand for prayer) make the imam in the middle and close the gaps between you
(Abu Dawood, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 1096).
وعن أَنَسٍ ، رضي الله عنه ، قال: "أُقِيمَتِ الصَّلَاةُ ، فَأَقْبَلَ عَلَيْنَا النَّبِيُّ ، صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ، بِوَجْهِهِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُكَبِّرَ ، فَقَالَ: "تَرَاصُّوا وَأَقِيمُوا صُفُوفَكُمْ إِنِّي لَأَرَاكُمْ مِنْ وَرَاءِ ظَهْرِي" (موطأ مالك).
Anas (mAbpwh) said that after we had stood for prayer, the Prophet (pbbuh) looked at us, before the takbeer (starting prayer by exalting God, saying He is Great, Allahu Akbar), and said:
Stand close to each other and straighten the lines (Muata’ Malik).
 Here are some verses about the prohibition of arrogance:
إِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَا يُحِبُّ كُلَّ مُخْتَالٍ فَخُورٍ (لقمان ، 31: 18).
Allah does not like (those who are) self-deluded and boastful (Luqman, 31: 18).
قِيلَ ادْخُلُوا أَبْوَابَ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ۖ فَبِئْسَ مَثْوَى الْمُتَكَبِّرِينَ (الزمر ، 39: 72).
(To them) it will be said, "Enter the gates of Hell, to abide eternally therein, and wretched is the residence of the arrogant" (Al-Zumar, 39: 72).
فَالْيَوْمَ تُجْزَوْنَ عَذَابَ الْهُونِ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَسْتَكْبِرُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَبِمَا كُنتُمْ تَفْسُقُونَ (الأحقاف ، 46: 20).
So, this Day, you will be awarded the punishment of (extreme) humiliation, because you were arrogant upon the earth, without right, and because you were defiantly disobedient."
The following two ‘Hadiths (sayings of the Prophet, pbbuh) are about avoiding the use of clothes for bragging and showing off (Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 791):
عن ابن عمر ، رضي اللَّه عنهما ، أَنّ النَّبيّ صَلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وسَلَّم ، قَالَ:
"مَنْ جَرَّ ثَوْبَهُ خُيَلاءَ لَمْ يَنْظُر اللَّه إِليهِ يَوْم القِيَامَةِ."
فَقَالَ أَبو بكر: يارسول اللَّه إِن إِزارى يَسْتَرْخى إِلا أَنْ أَتَعَاهَدَهُ. فَقَالَ لَهُ رَسُول اللَّه صَلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وسَلَّم:
إِنَّكَ لَسْتَ مِمَّنْ يَفْعَلُهُ خُيَلاءَ" (رواه البخاري ، وروى مسلم بعضه ، رياض الصالحين: 791).
Abdullah, the Son of ‘Umar (mAbpwh) said that the Prophet (pbbuh), said:
Whoever drags his shirt (long gown reaching the floor), as a show off, Allah will not look at him on the Day of Rising (for Judgment).
Then, (Companion) Abu Bakr said: O Messenger of Allah! The lower part of my clothes reaches the ground, unless I keep holding it.
The Messenger of Allah (pbbuh) replied to him: (You’re OK as) you don’t do that as a show off (bragging).
(Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 791).
وعَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ، رضي الله عنه ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ، صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ، قَالَ:
"لَا يَنْظُرُ اللَّهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ إِلَى مَنْ جَرَّ إِزَارَهُ بَطَرًا (صحيح البخاري: 5451).
Abu Hurayrah (mAbpwh) said that the Messenger of Allah (pbbuh), said:
On the Day of Rising (for Judgment), Allah does not look at whoever drags his clothes (to the ground), as a show off (bragging). (Al-Bukhari, 5451).
 'Hadiths (sayings of the Prophet, pbbuh) which prohibit men from wearing golden ornaments or clothes made of silk, or drink from golden or silver cups (Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 777 and 808):
وعن أَبي مُوسى الأشْعريِّ ، رضي اللَّه عنه ، أنَّ رسُولَ اللَّه ، صَلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وسَلَّم ، قَالَ:
"حُرِّم لِبَاسُ الحَرِيرِ وَالذَّهَب عَلَى ذُكُورِ أُمَّتي، وَأُحلَّ لإنَاثِهِم." (رواهُ الترمذي وقال حديثٌ حسن صحيح ، رياض الصالحين رقم: 808).
Abu Moussa Al-Ash’ari (mAbpwh) said that the Messenger of Allah (pbbuh), said:
Wearing silk and gold is prohibited for men of my Ummah (Community of believers) but it is allowed for the females among them (Al-Tirmidhi, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 808).
 The command for women to cover their body decently when they go out of their homes is mentioned in Verse 31 of Surat Al-Noor (Chapter 24), and in Verse 59 of Surat Al-A'hzab (Chapter 33), of the Holy Quran, as follows:
وَقُل لِّلْمُؤْمِنَاتِ يَغْضُضْنَ مِنْ أَبْصَارِهِنَّ وَيَحْفَظْنَ فُرُوجَهُنَّ وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا (النور ، 24: 31).
And tell the believing women to lower their gazes, and guard their private parts, and not expose their adornment (beauty), except that which (necessarily) appears thereof (Al-Noor, 24: 31).
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُل لِّأَزْوَاجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَاءِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِن جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ أَدْنَىٰ أَن يُعْرَفْنَ فَلَا يُؤْذَيْنَ وَكَانَ اللَّـهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا (الأحزاب ، 33: 59).
O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters, as well as the women of the believers to bring down over themselves (part) of their outer garments. That is more suitable (for them) that they will not be known. So, they will not be harmed. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful (Al-A'hzab, 33: 59).
About the Author and the Book:
* The author of this book
has a Ph.D. in Sociology and a Master’s degree in Cultural
Anthropology. He was born in Gaza, Palestine in 1369 Hijriya (1950)
but he has been living in the United States since 1986.
The works of the
three renowned Islamic scholars Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn
Katheer, have been used throughout the chapters of this book, as
these are the most credited interpretations of the Holy Quran, for
their use of 'Hadith, companions' interpretations, and their
thorough knowledge of the Arabic language.
يُرِيدُونَ لِيُطْفِئُوا نُورَ اللَّـهِ بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَاللَّـهُ مُتِمُّ نُورِهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْكَافِرُونَ (الصف ، 61: 8).
They want to extinguish the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah will perfect His light, although the disbelievers dislike it (Al-Saff, 61: 8).
Opinions expressed in various sections are the sole responsibility of their authors and they may not represent Al-Jazeerah's.