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Islam: God's Message of Guidance to Humanity

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

Table of Contents  

I. Introduction: Basic Information   

1. Islam: A Brief Introduction    

2. Three Levels of Faith: Islam, Iman, and Ihsan    

3. The Scientific Evidence That God Exists and the Holy Qur'an Is His Message to Humanity    

4. Creation and Evolution in the Holy Qur'an   

5. Humans, As God's Caliphs on Earth   

6. Adam's Contest With the Angels, and Getting Out of Paradise  

7. Worshippers By Choice Or Forced Slaves?    

8. The Relationship Between the Spiritual and the Physical Aspects of Islamic Teachings   

9. Mind, Self, Soul, Spirit, and Happiness from an Islamic Perspective  

10. Heart-Mind Relationship in the Holy Qur'an    

II. Islam: The Five Pillars of the Faith Structure  

1. Islamic Proclamation of Faith  

2. Performing Islamic Prayers  

3. Giving Zakat, Charity, The Third Islamic Duty  

4. Fasting and Ramadhan, Great Gifts from Allah to Muslims  

5. Haj, Pilgrimage, the Fifth Pillar of Islam

III. Iman: Allah, His Angels, Messengers, Messages, Latter Day, and Qadar  

1. Allah, As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran    

2. Angels  

3. Noo'h, Noah, in the Holy Quran     

4. Ibrahim, Abraham, in the Holy Quran

5. Moussa, Moses, in the Holy Quran  

6. 'Eissa, Jesus Christ, in the Holy Quran    

7. Muhammed in the Holy Quran   

8. Prophet Muhammed's Night Journey and Ascent to Heavens, Al-Issra Wal Mi'raj  

9. The Last Day: The Hour, Resurrection, Reckoning, and Judgment

10. Qada and Qadar: God's Foreknowledge and His Decree  

IV. I'hsan: Watching Allah in What We Say and What We Do  

1. Introduction to Islamic Law, Shari'a, Part I, Prohibition, Don't Do, and Do Commands in the Holy Quran  

2. The La (No) Commands  

3. The Imperative Commands  

***

Articles with Islamic Perspective:

Health Care Crisis in the US: An Islamic Perspective

"Terrorism" & "Islamo-Fascism" Propaganda Campaigns: An Interactive Lecture

Six Questions About Islam, Muslims and Jews

Five Islamic Issues: Predestination and choice, position toward other religions, angels, and the End of Days

Food Islamic Rules and Teachings
 

Are Muslim women second-class citizens  

The French Ban on Islamic Headscarf, an Interview with

Links to Islamic Topics 2007-2010

Links to Islamic Topics 2007

Links to Islamic topics 2006

Links to Islamic topics 2005

Links to Islamic topics 2004

Links to Islamic topics, 2003

2002 Links to Islamic topics  

 

Islam:

God's Message of Guidance to Humanity

I. 1

Islam:

A Brief Introduction

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

May 20, 2007

 

Updated on 15th of Jumada Al-Thaniya, 1433, May 6, 2012

 

أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

 

I seek refuge with God from the Stoned Shaitan (Satan)

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

***

On the authority of Abu Abdul Rahman Abdullah, the son of Umar Bin Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with both of them), who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah, may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon him (pbbuh) say:

"Islam has been built on five (pillars) [1]: The proclamation that there is no other god than Allah and that Muhammed is the Messenger of Allah, performing the prayers, paying the Zakat, making the pilgrimage to the House (of God in Makkah) [2], and fasting (during the month of) Ramadhan." [3]

The word "Islam" means believing in Allah (The God) [4] to the extent of submitting your will to Him. In this sense, the messengers of God such as Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus Christ (Nooh, Ibrahim, Moussa, and 'Eissa) as well as their righteous followers are also considered Muslims and referred to as such in the Holy Quran (2: 127-136 and 3: 52).

It is one religion, revealed to people on Earth  for thousands of years to guide them in this life and to reward them in the Hereafter. Muhammed, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him (pbbuh),  was the last of these Muslim Prophets and Messengers of God. [5]

The Arabic verb root of the word "Islam" is /salima/, meaning kept safe. The word "Muslim" is one of its derivatives. The Prophet (pbbuh) said, "The Muslim is the person from whose tongue and hand people are kept safe." In other words, a Muslim does not harm people with his/her tongue or hand.

Other derivatives of the verb include /aslama/, which means to submit, from which came the word "Muslim," as in 2: 112. Moreover, /silm/, which means peace, as in 2: 208, and /salam/, which also means peace, as in reference to Paradise as Dar es Salam, or the House of Peace (6: 127).

Finally, Islam is the first level of faith, attaining it is required to gain the mercy and contentment of God, to live happily in this world, and to have an everlasting life in Paradise, in the hereafter. A higher level of faith is adding Iman, and the highest is adding I'hsan to both of them (See Chapter I.2: Three Levels of Faith: Islam, Iman, and I'hsan for more information).

Sources of the Islamic teachings: 

1. The Holly Quran (pronounced as two separate syllables Qur - an).

The first and foremost source of Islam and Islamic teachings is the Holy Quran. It is also referred to as Koran but this is an inaccurate translation, as the letter Q is closer to the Arabic sound than the letter K. The Holy Quran is the Word of God and His Message to humanity. It was revealed, in the 7th century, to the Prophet Muhammed (pbbuh) in 23 years.

The Holy Quran was written by the scribes during the life of the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, as he received it by inspiration through the Angel, Jibril, peace be to him. The Messenger of Allah would speak in his Quraysh accent of Arabic and the scribes would write down the revelations, then they would read what they wrote to him for confirmation. Jibril, peace to him, used to review suras (chapters) of the Holy Quran with the Messenger of Allah during the month of Ramadhan every year. However, he reviewed the Holy Quran in its entirety with him twice during the last Ramadhan of his life.

In the year 25 hijriya (about fifteen years after the death of the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh), the third Successor (Caliph), 'Uthman, may Allah be pleased with him, ordered the collection of the Holy Quran Suras in one book. These were written as the Messenger of Allah dictated them in his Quraysh accent. Others, which were written in other accents, were burned. Then, the Caliph ordered copying five or six copies and sent them to Makkah, Kufa, Basra, Damascus, Medina Mosque, and kept one in his house. Then, other copies were made from these copies.

Ever since, Muslims all over the world have only one version of the Holy Quran, in its authentic Arabic text (known as 'Uthmanic Mus'haf), from which there are translations to almost all other languages. One translation may be different from others due to the differences in the academic backgrounds and the sources of interpretation of the translators.

The Holy Quran includes the basic Message and Teachings of Allah (God) to humanity, which were revealed through His Messengers. Its verses contain facts about the universe, Earth, and humans as evidence that its author is Allah, the Creator, praise to Him. The verses also contain God's commands which if followed lead to happiness in this life and in the hereafter.  

Moreover, the Holy Quran includes examples and lessons to be learned from previous human experiences, with special references to the Old and New Testaments (Torah and Engel). It also includes clarifications about the differences between Jews and Christians, such as the nature of Jesus and his message to the Israelites.

The most important characteristic of the Holy Quran, as the Word of Allah (God) and His Message to humanity, is that it is in its authentic Arabic text, since revelation, more than 1400 years ago. It will be guarded and will be kept safe, away from distortion, as promised by Allah in 15: 9.

The first word uttered by the Angel Jibril, peace to him, to the Prophet Muhammed (pbbuh) was /iqra'/, or the command verb: "Read." Thus, a direct translation of the word "Al-Quran" may be "The Reader." This means that God, the Knowledgeable, wants his beloved human creation to be as knowledgeable as they can be, through reading and writing, as well as through accumulation and processing of knowledge.

The Quran in its Arabic original version and its translations into other languages can be found in many libraries and internet sites, such as www.tanzil.net, which has many translations to English and other languages, as well as an excellent Arabic research function. Another important site is http://quran.al-islam.com, which has a research function allowing access to the major interpretations of the Holy Quran by early Islamic scholars, particularly Bin Katheer, Al-Qurtubi, and Al-Tabari. [6]

2. The Sunna [7]

The second source of Islamic teachings is the Sunna. It includes sayings or (Hadiths), actions, and approval of the Prophet (pbbuh). The Sunna explains the Quran in more details, and includes teachings of the Prophet, and how his life was an example for Muslims to follow.

The above-mentioned Hadith is an example of how the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, taught about and explained the Holy Quran, summarizing the five pillars of Islam. All of these ways of worship are mentioned in various chapters of the Holy Quran. For example, the proclamation of faith was mentioned in 3: 18 and 40: 33, Prayers and Zakat in 2: 110, fasting in 2: 183, and Haj in 3: 97. The Hadith put these five ways of worship together, emphasizing them as the five major and manifest Muslim obligations. [8]

 An example of his actions was showing Muslims how to pray. While Allah, praise to Him, commanded Muslims to pray, His Messenger, pbbuh, showed them how to pray, standing, bowing, kneeling, prostrating, and sitting down, as well as what to say in every movement.

An example of his approval was observing the anniversary of the Israelite exudus from Egypt. He noticed that Jews in Medina used to fast in gratitude to Allah for the freedom of the Israelites. He approved of it and fasted, which became a Sunna for Muslims to follow.

At the beginning of his mission, the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, discouraged his companions to write down anything about him except the Holy Quran. He did not want his Hadith to be confused with or added to the Word of God. His companions also discouraged it. Later, he allowed it and some companions started to write it. However, the Hadith was not collected officially until the reign of the Ummayad Caliph, Omar Bin Abdul Aziz (99-101 hijriya), about 90 years after the death of the Messenger, pbbuh. The Abbasid Caliph Al-Mansoor (136-158 hijriya) also made another effort to encourage the collection of the Hadith, when he asked Malik Bin Anas to write his famous book of 'Hadith, Al-Muwata'.

The Sunna in its Arabic original version and its translations into other languages can be found in many libraries and internet sites, such as http://hadith.al-islam.com , which has indexes of the Sunna books and subjects in Arabic.

3. Research By Islamic Scholars

The third source of Islamic teachings is research. It is conducted by Islamic scholars concerning contemporary issues. These are graduates of Islamic universities, who hold the highest degrees in Islamic studies. They are experts on the Quran and the Sunna. Their investigations, discussions, and arguments are guided by the first two sources.

Islamic scholars may conduct research to explain the Islamic position towards new products, behaviors, or lifestyles for each generation, which are not mentioned by name in the Holy Quran and the Hadith. For example, the Holy Quran prohibits gambling and alcoholic beverages, as stated in Verses 2: 219, 5:90-91. A Muslim scholar may write a paper about the reason these are prohibited, basically arguing that these are harmful. Another scholar may argue that any other substance that may cause harm to the human body should also be prohibited, such as the currently-known illegal drugs (cocaine, herion, and marijuana). However, such arguments, explanations, or interpretations are tied to the verses of the Holy Quran and the Hadith.  

Five Islamic 'Ibadat, or Ways of Worship, or Obligations:

A Muslim is required to perform the following five 'Ibadat, or ways of worship, or obligations. These are considered the five pillars of the structure of Islam.

1. In order to be a Muslim, a person has to announce the Proclamation of Faith, which states: "There is no other god than Allah, and that Muhammed is the Messenger of Allah."

2. A Muslim has to perform prayers  five times a day, at dawn (before the Sun rises), at noon, mid afternoon, after the Sun sets, and at twilight (about one and a half hours after the Sun sets).

Prayers include reciting Al-Fati'ha (the opening chapter of the Holy Quran) together with some verses from other chapters, accompanied by doing certain movements that include standing, bowing, kneeling, prostrating, and sitting down on the floor.

Before performing prayers, a Muslim has to make Wudu', which is washing and cleaning of the hands, mouth, nose, face, head, ears, arms, and feet. A shower or bath is also sufficient as Wudu', and it is required after sexual intercourse.

The Creator, praise to Him, wants people to be healthy by cleaning themselves of dust, sweat, and microbes five times a day. Moreover, the unique movements performed in prayers function as exercise for various body organs, joints, and muscles on daily basis. In addition, reciting Al-Fati'ha and Al-Tashahud in every prayer represents a form of contemplation, which has tremendous benefits to the mind. Reciting other verses of the Holy Quran, in addition to Al-Fati'ha, means a continuous study of the Word of God, on daily basis.

A detailed description of how Muslims pray can be found at: Performing Islamic Prayers. This includes wudu' (cleanliness), Adhan, Iqama, making Raka'as (prayer units), reciting Al-Fati'ha, other excerpts from the Holy Quran, Tashahud, and Tasbee'h. See it on Video Here for education. For actual prayer videos, see Note [9].

3. A Muslim has to give Zakat, which is often translated as, charity, "alms-tax" or "poor-due" but it is more than that. It is a right for the poor in the wealth of the wealthy, as stated in Verse 70: 24. It is calculated as 2.5 percent of a person's wealth annually. This includes net income, profits, and commercial property (not used for necessity, like dwelling, tools, women's jewelry, and cars).

In an Islamic state, it is a tax levied on a man's wealth and spent by the state. In absence of an Islamic state, Muslims as individuals have the responsibility to calculate and spend it annually. Whether it is collected by the state or calculated by individuals, Zakat should be spent on the areas prescribed by the Holy Quran, as follows: 

Charity (Sadaqat or Zakat) is for the poor, and for the needy, and for those employed to administer it, and for those whose hearts have been recently reconciled (for Islam), and for freeing slaves (or captives), and for those in debt, and for the cause of Allah, and for the (stranded) traveler. (It is) an ordinance from Allah, and Allah is Knowledgeable and Wise (Al-Tawba, 9: 60).  [10]

4. A Muslim has to fast during the month of Ramadhan. This means that Muslims abstain from eating, drinking, smoking, and having sexual intercourse during the day time. This extends from about one and a half hours before the Sun rises until the Sun sets. The objective is to train the human self (soul) to resist body desires and to feel for the hungry poor. It also has numerous benefits to the body, such as getting rid of extra fat, harmful and weak cells, and giving a break to the digestive system. Many articles can be found on the internet about the benefits of fasting, as well as here Fasting in Ramadhan.  

5. A Muslim has to go to Makkah in a pilgrimage, Haj, at least once in one’s lifetime, if one is capable to do that. This is a visit to the first House of God on Earth. It is now in Saudi Arabia. There, several million Muslims gather every year, responding to God's call, confirming their faith, and remembering the story of the Messenger of Allah, Ibrahim (Abraham), peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, when he left his son, Isma'il, and his wife Hajar (Hagger), over there.

In particular, pilgrims remember the story of the slaughter and sacrifice. As Ismail grew older, Ibrahim came to slaughter him in obedience to God. It was a test for the three of them. They passed the test by expressing obedience to God and disobedience to the Shaytan (Satan) by throwing stones at him. As Ibrahim put his knife on Isma'l's neck, the Angel Jibril came with the good news that they passed the test and Ibrahim was given an animal to slaughter instead. 

Then, Ibrahim and Isma'il rebuilt Al-Ka'aba, the House of the Lord, the most sacred place of worship for Muslims. Pilgrims perform rituals resembling various parts of the story, as well as orbiting the Ka'aba seven times, and worshipping on the sacred places of Arafat and Muzdalifa.

The pilgrimage (Haj) can be watched in many videos in the internet, such as Haj, 5min, with a song.

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Notes:

 [1]. The word "pillars" does not appear in the Arabic text but has been supplied for clarity of meaning. The Arabic word "arkan" (corners) is the generally-accepted term in this context. These are also considered the core of 'ibadat, or ways of worshipping Allah.

 [2]. The House is a reference to the first House of worshipping God on Earth, the honorable Ka'aba and the Sanctified Mosque, Al-Masjid Al-Haram, surrounding it in Makkah.

 [3]. This Hadith was translated by Ezzeddin Ibrahim and Denys Johnson-Davies (Abdul Wadoud), "An-Nawawi's Forty Hadiths." 1976. Dar Al-Manar. Here's the Arabic text of the Hadith:

عن أبي عبد الرحمن عبد الله بن عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنهما قال :

سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول :

" بُني الإسلامُ على خمسٍ : شهادةِ أن لا إله إلا الله ، وأن محمداً رسول الله ، وإقامِ الصلاةِ ، وإيتاءِ الزكاةِ ، وحَجِ البيتِ ، وصومِ رمضان."  (رواه البخاري ومسلم).

 

[4].  "Allah" is the name which God has chosen for himself, as stated in Verse 9 of Surat Al-Naml  (Chapter 27) of the Holy Quran. He is the Creator of life, Who is worshipped by His creation as an expression of gratitude for the blessings of life, care, provision, and promise of an everlasting life in the hereafter for the righteous believers among them.

The word "Allah" means "the God," or "Al-Ilah." In addressing God, a Muslim may say in Arabic "Ilahi" (my God). However, Muslims usually refer to God with the definite article, Al, contracted with the noun to become Allah, thus addressing Him with "Ya Allah" or "O Allah."

The definite article (the) in Arabic takes two forms: "El" and "Al." Almost all usage of the definite article in the Holy Quran is in the "Al" form. However, there are three words in the Holy Quran, which include the "El" form. These are used in reference to the Prophet "El-Yass" (Elijah), his house (his family) "Elyassin," and to Prophet "El-Yassa'a," with the Hamza under the Alef, for which the English vowel "E" is the correct translation (The Holy Quran: Chapter 6, Verse 85 and Chapter 37, Verse 130).

The definite article "El" was also used in in the ancient Arabic dialect of Aramaic, spoken in the Holy Land of Baitul Maqdis, which was called Palestine at the time of 'Eissa (Jesus Christ), Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. The Bible tells us that Jesus addressed God the same way Muslims address Him today (Ilahi, or my God).

In Mark 15, Verse 34, Ps. 22:1, and Mat 27: 46, the Bible says: "And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice saying Eloi, Eloi, la ma sabchtani (sabakhtani)? which was translated as "My God, My God, why has Thou forsaken me?" or "My God, My God, why have You forsaken me?"

While "Ilahi, Ilahi li ma" are standard Arabic words, which can be understood by the average educated Arabs, the verb "sabakhtani" is not as known or used by average educated Arabs now. They may use other verbs, such as "taraktani" or hajartani." However, a noun derived from it is still in use. Many Arabs may refer to a deserted lot of land (as a result of being soaked with water or salt) as "sabkha." 

Apparently, the sound "h" in "ilahi" was missed during one of the successive translations of the Bible from Aramaic to Greek, to Roman, to old,  middle, and modern European languages. 

It is noteworthy that Christian Arabs refer to God as Allah in their Bibles, prayers, and daily discourse. A famous Christian Arab phrase is "Allah Ma'habah," or "God is love."

This should be enough evidence for non-Muslims to know that the name of God (Allah) was used by His messengers who preceded Muhammed, peace and blessings of God be upon all of them.

More can be found Chapter III.1: "Allah, As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran."

 [5]. The Holy Quran mentions that Messengers of God and believers before Prophet Muhammed (pbbuh) were also Muslims, as stated in Verses 2: 132-133; 3: 19, 52, 67, 84; 7: 126; 12: 101; 27: 42, 91; 28: 53; 32: 12; 51: 36; 72: 14.

 [6]. The three early prominent Islamic scholars, known for their interpretations of the Holy Quran, are Al-Tabari (Died in 310 Hijriya), Al-Qurtubi (Died in 671 Hijriya), and Bin Katheer (Died in 774 Hijriya). They employed their knowledge of Arabic as well as their comprehensive knowledge of the Holy Quran, using verses in one context to explain other verses in other contexts. Their most important contribution, though, was including explanations from the Hadith of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, and from his companions, may Allah be pleased with them.

[7]. Allah, praise to Him, says: "Whatever the Messenger came to you with, take it; and whatever he prohibited you, abstain from it (The Holy Qur'an, Al-'Hashr (59: 7).

The Messenger of Allah (pbbuh) said, "You need to follow my Sunna (teachings, example, and path) and that of the guided successors after me. Stick to it strongly." (A translation of the meanings of the Hadith, the Arabic text of which can be found in "Riyadh Al-Saliheen," Hadith Number 157.

In a Hadith narrated by Muslim, in Al-Zuhd Wal Raqa-iq, number 5326, on the authority of Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, who said, the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said (addressing the scribes):

"Do not write anything about me except the Quran, and whoever wrote anything other than the Quran, let him erase it, but narrate about me (verbally) and there is nothing wrong with that." 

عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ، صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ، قَالَ : "لا تَكْتُبُوا عَنِّي وَمَنْ كَتَبَ عَنِّي غَيْرَ الْقُرْآنِ فَلْيَمْحُهُ وَحَدِّثُوا عَنِّي وَلا حَرَجَ ."

رواه مسلم (الزهد والرقائق/ 5326)

http://islamqa.info/ar/ref/22394

Names of the twenty-three scribes, according to Bin Katheer:

اختلف أهل السير في تحديد عدد كتاب الوحي، فمنهم من جعلهم ثلاثة عشر، ومنهم من جاوز بهم العشرين، وجعلهم ابن كثير ثلاثة وعشرين كما في البداية والنهاية ، وهذه أسماؤهم كما أوردها ، قال:

أما كتاب الوحي وغيره بين يديه ، صلوات الله وسلامه عليه ، ورضي عنهم أجمعين ، فمنهم الخلفاء الأربعة أبو بكر وعمر وعثمان وعلي بن أبي طالب رضي الله عنهم.

ثم ذكر: أبان بن سعيد بن العاص ، وأبي بن كعب ، وزيد بن ثابت ، ومعاذ بن جبل ، وأرقم بن أبي الأرقم واسمه عبد مناف ، وثابت بن قيس بن شماس ، وحنظلة بن الربيع ، وخالد بن سعيد بن العاص ، وخالد بن الوليد ، والزبير بن العوام ، وعبد الله بن سعد بن أبي سرح ، وعامر بن فهيرة ، وعبد الله بن أرقم ، وعبد الله بن زيد بن عبد ربه ، والعلاء بن الحضرمي ، ومحمد بن مسلمة بن جريس ، ومعاوية بن أبي سفيان ، والمغيرة بن شعبة ، رضي الله عنهم أجمعين.

http://www.islamweb.net/fatwa/index.php?page=showfatwa&Option=FatwaId&Id=69904

 

[8]. Examples of verses about the Proclamation of Faith were mentioned in such verses as 3: 18 and 40: 33, about Prayers and Zakat in 2: 110, about Fasting in 2: 183, and about Haj in 2:197 and 22: 27.

 

  شَهِدَ اللَّـهُ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ وَأُولُو الْعِلْمِ قَائِمًا بِالْقِسْطِ ۚ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ  (آل عمران ، 3: 18).

 مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ وَلَـٰكِن رَّسُولَ اللَّـهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّـهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا  (الأحزاب ، 33: 40). 

وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ  (البقرة ، 2: 110).

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ  (البقرة ، 2: 183).

 وَلِلَّـهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلًا ۚ   (آل عمران ، 3: 97).

 

Allah witnesses that there is no other god except Him, and (so do) the angels and those of knowledge. (and that He is) maintaining (creation) with justice. There is no other god except Him, the Exalted in Might, the Wise (Al-'Imran, 3: 18).

Muhammad is not the father of (any) one of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah and last of the prophets. And Allah is, of all things, Knowing (Al-A'hzab, 33: 40).

And establish Prayer and give Zakat (Al-Baqara, 2: 110).

O you who have believed, fasting has been decreed upon, as it was decreed upon those before you, so that you may become righteous (Al-Baqara, 2: 183).

And (due) to Allah from the people is a pilgrimage to the House, for whoever is able to find a way to it (Al-'Imran, 3: 97).  

[9]. Prayers at Islam's three holiest mosques:

Prayer at Al-Aqsa Mosque, in Al-Quds (Jerusalem):

https://www.facebook.com/QudsN/videos/944409028969332/

Prayer at the Prophet’s Mosque, in Madina:

https://archive.org/details/1435----2014-------video----traweeh--alharam----alnabawy--almadani_369

Prayer at the Prophet’s Mosque in Madinah:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vDvMx_tcKoA

Live streaming from the Prophet’s Mosque, in Madinah:

http://mecca.net/masjid-al-nabawi-in-madinah-live-prayers/

Live streaming from Al-Haram Mosque, in Makkah, with Quran recitation:

http://mecca.net/mecca-live-prayers/

Maghreb prayer by Al-Sudays, at Al-Haram Mosque, in Makkah:

https://vimeo.com/69877908

Prayer led by Saud Al-Shuraym, at Al-Haram Mosque, in Makkah, with English translation:

https://archive.org/details/1435-----thajjod---video------full---quran---mushaf---tahajod-----makah----alh

 

[10]. Whether it is collected by the state or calculated by individuals, Zakat should be spent on the areas prescribed by the Holy Qur'an, as in Verse 60 of Surat Al-Tawbah (Chapter 9).  

إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْعَامِلِينَ عَلَيْهَا وَالْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَالْغَارِمِينَ وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ ۖ فَرِيضَةً مِّنَ اللَّـهِ ۗ وَاللَّـهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ  (التوبة ، 9: 60).

Charity (Sadaqat or Zakat) is for the poor and for the needy, and for those employed to administer it, and for those whose hearts have been recently reconciled (for Islam) and for freeing slaves (or captives), and for those in debt, and for the cause of Allah, and for the (stranded) traveler. (It is) an ordinance from Allah, and Allah is Knowledgeable and Wise (Al-Tawba, 9: 60).

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* Dr. Hassan Ali El-Najjar  has a Ph.D. in Sociology and a Master’s degree in Cultural Anthropology. He is also a native speaker of Arabic.

 

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