Al-Haram Mosque in Makkah The Prophet's Mosque in Madinah . Al-Aqsa Mosque Compound in Jerusalem
 

Al-Jazeerah

1. Islam: A Brief Introduction  

2. Performing Islamic Prayers

3. Three Levels of Faith: Islam, Iman, and Ihsan 

4. The Scientific Evidence That God Exists and the Holy Qur'an Is His Message to Humanity 

5. Creation and Evolution in the Holy Qur'an

6. Humans, As God's Caliphs on Earth

7. Adam's Contest With the Angels, and Getting Out of Paradise

8. The Relationship Between the Spiritual and the Physical in Islamic Teachings  

9. Mind, Self, Soul, Spirit, and Happiness from an Islamic Perspective 

10. Heart-Mind Relationship in the Holy Qur'an

11. Worshippers By Choice Or Forced Slaves?

 12. Allah, As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran

Articles with Islamic Perspective:

Health Care Crisis in the US: An Islamic Perspective

"Terrorism" & "Islamo-Fascism" Propaganda Campaigns: An Interactive Lecture

Six Questions About Islam, Muslims and Jews

Five Islamic Issues: Predestination and choice, position toward other religions, angels, and the End of Days

Food Islamic Rules and Teachings  

Are Muslim women second-class citizens  

The French Ban on Islamic Headscarf, an Interview with

Links to Islamic Topics 2007-2010

Links to Islamic Topics 2007

Links to Islamic topics 2006

Links to Islamic topics 2005

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Links to Islamic topics, 2003

2002 Links to Islamic topics

 

Islam:

God's Message of Guidance to Humanity

9

Mind, Self, Soul, Spirit, and Happiness from an Islamic Perspective

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar*

Al-Jazeerah, 13th Dhul Qaada, 1428 - November 24, 2007

Revised on 2nd of Dhul Hijja, 1429 - November 30, 2008

Revised on 1st of Ramadan, 1433 - July 20, 2012

 

Introduction

The concepts of mind, self, soul, Spirit, and happiness are closely related in the Holy Quran. This article attempts to increase peoples understanding of these concepts, their interconnectedness, and their relevance to Islamic teachings in general.

Scientists of our time have been able to clone animals. This has made it easier on people to believe that the Creator (Praise to Him), the All-Knowledgeable, is capable of resurrecting the human body in the Day of Judgment.[1]

The current information revolution has demonstrated that information can be captured in diskettes and compacted disks (CDs) and transferred through space (from Earth to satellites orbiting our planet, then back to Earth). However, humans have neither been capable of transferring information from the human brain nor to it.

This is Gods sphere so far. He is the Creator of scientists and internet innovators. He is capable of transferring information from our brains at the moment of death to a super computer somewhere in His universe until the Day of Judgment. He has not told us how He does that but assured us that we will know a little about it.[2]    

These facts also mean that God is capable of cloning the same individual and of transferring the information back to his/her brain, thus resurrecting humans in body and soul, at the Day of Judgment.

Happiness, Good, and Evil

Ultimately, believers in God's ability of resurrection would behave in a good way during their life time on Planet Earth. As a result, they will be rewarded in this life by living in happiness, and in the hereafter by entering God's Paradise and enjoying a happy life there forever.

Conversely, those who don't want to believe in the Day of Reckoning, don't also believe in accountability. So, they may act in an evil or a bad way during their life time on Planet Earth. As a result, they will be punished by not living in peace and happiness in this life and by entering Hell in the hereafter.

An important point in the discussion about the Day of Judgment is that capturing human voice and picture, recording them, and broadcasting them through radio and TV waves have demonstrated that it is possible to record every movement, action, or word a human being does or says while living on Earth.

If humans could do that, then it should be a given that their Creator is more capable of doing it than they are. This constitutes further evidence about the accountability humans are held to by God, who will judge them according to what has been recorded about them.

The two concepts of good and evil are not left to people to define. Otherwise, they may never agree on what constitutes each one of them.

God's teachings revealed in His messages to guide humanity, as summarized in the Holy Qur'an, include specific definitions and examples of what constitutes good and evil.

These messages were delivered by Gods messengers throughout human history. Some of these messengers were mentioned in the Holy Books, others were not mentioned. 

Among the mentioned prominent messengers of God, we are told about Adam, Nooh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham, Loot (Lot), Is'haq (Isaac), Ya'aqoub (Jacob), Yousuf (Joseph), Moussa (Moses), Hood, Saleh, Elias (Elijah), Elyasa'a, Younus (Jonah), Ayoub (Jobe), Dawood (David), Sulaiman (Solomon), Zakariyah, Yahya (John), Al-Messieh Eissa Bin Maryam (The Messiah Jesus, Son of Mary), and Muhammed (Peace and blessings of God be upon all of them).

The message of God to humanity, taught by his messengers, includes commands and recommendations. While good is what God has wanted humans to do, evil is what He warned them against, telling them to avoid or not to do (See Introduction to Islamic Law, Shari'a, Part I).

It follows that obedience to God, through doing what He wants people to do, constitutes what's good, and leads to happiness. However, disobedience to Him leads to committing evil acts, which causes suffering to offenders and to their victims.[3]  

More direct association between obedience to God and happiness as well as disobedience to Him and unhappiness or wretchedness can be found in verses throughout the Holy Quran. [4]

The Mind

The mind is the body of knowledge housed in the brain. It includes two main parts. The first is a software which develops inherently with the brain in the womb. It is responsible for the functionality of the body, readiness for learning, and disposition for knowing good and evil, as explained in the self below. [5]

The second part of the mind is accumulated from birth until death, as a result of the interaction with the world. So, the mind actually houses everything a person learns throughout his/her life. However, not all the information accumulated in the mind may be used by a  person.

The word mind (aql, ) does not appear in the Holy Quran as a noun in the singular form. Rather, a derivative of which is used as a verb (aqala ), meaning to tie, tighten, control, or restrict. [6]

Thus, minding or reasoning means subjecting ones thinking to known restrictions, rules, laws, and controls in order for ones behavior to become as educated, safe, wise, and intelligent as possible, as mentioned in many verses of the Holy Quran. [7]

The word al-albab   ,() however, is used in the Holy Quran to refer to the mind but in the plural form. It has been used in 15 verses, all addressing believers who are intelligent enough to use their minds. [8]

Self and Soul

In Surat Al-Anaam (Chapter 6), Verse 60, of the Holy Quran, we are told that Allah, praise to Him, knows what we do in the daytime, when we are awake, then we go back to Him in the Day of Judgment, so He tells us what we have done in this life. [9]

In Chapter 6, also, Verse 61, God tells us that when the moment of death comes, God sends angels who are curators or record keepers to end a persons life on Earth. Nothing will be left out of his/her record. The record will be completed. Thus, the physical death is also accompanied by wafah or completion of a persons record during his/her time life on Earth.

Some Messengers of God, however, were lifted to heavens to save them from death but their records on Earth were completed, such as the case with Jesus Christ, peace be upon him, who experienced "wafah" but not death. This is also the case of martyrs, whose lives on Earth ended but they are alive in heavens. [10]

Verse 67 of Chapter 6 assures us that every bit of news has a destination where it can be saved or recorded, and prophetically tells us that we will know that this can and will happen. [11]

Part of this prophecy has been fulfilled in our time, as we have been capable of capturing the sound and pictures of humans and their environment and of broadcasting them through radio and TV waves throughout terrestrial and extraterrestrial space.

The main idea here is that if humans have been capable of accomplishing that, then it should be a given that Allah Almighty, praise to Him, is more capable of doing it and more.

But what exactly are we going to be held accountable for?

The Holy Quran tells us that we will be held accountable for all what we say or do with our own free will and choice. This is because God has given humans the freedom to choose. [12]

The Holy Quran is very specific about the contrast between the two choices. In Verses 7 and 8 of Chapter 91 (Surat Al-Shams), God Almighty says that when He has fashioned the human self (by blowing His spirit in it), He has also equipped it with the ability to choose to be pious or deviant, following the straight path or going astray from it. [13]

Translators of the Holy Quran generally use the word soul as a translation for the Arabic word nafs (ۡ۬). Sociologists use another term, self, to refer to the body of knowledge, which is selected from the mind in a developmental process to form a unique identity for a living person.

The word soul is more used by religious scholars to refer to a persons unique identity after death, than during his/her life on earth. Thus, the soul is the self after death, which will be held accountable for its performance during life on Earth. It will be resurrected through being transferred back to its cloned body in the Day of Judgment, in order to be able to communicate with its Creator, then to be rewarded or punished on the basis of its Earthen performance.

There are hundreds of verses in the Holy Quran, which mention the self (nafs in Arabic). Some of them refer to the self during its life on Earth and others refer to it in the Hereafter. [14] 

Spirit

While psychologists, sociologists, and other scientists have been studying the mind and the self (which becomes soul after death), we know very little about the spirit, as the Holy Quran tells us.

The word spirit is a translation of the Arabic word roo'h ( ), which is mentioned in about 20 verses in the Holy Quran.

Humans received part of Gods spirit when He blew it in Adam, thus becoming part of the human DNA, as Verses 5:110, 15: 29, 21: 91, and 66: 12 tells us. This is the part of the brain which is responsible for the automatic functionality of the body organs, readiness for learning, and disposition for knowing good and evil.

From these 20 verses of the Holy Quran, we know that the spirit is a quality of God that He sends to the humans He has created in order to support, strengthen, and give life to them. Thus, humans have some of Gods spirit. The verses also refer to the angel Jibril (Gabriel) as "the Spirit." [15] 

Summary and Conclusion

The concepts of mind, self, soul, Spirit, and happiness are closely related in the Holy Quran. They are interconnected, in the sense that understanding them individually cannot be complete without understanding how they are related to each other.

As human beings, we are elated over a lot of Gods creations because of our ability to collect, process, and use data in a good way, by choice.

The human body is just an instrument that incubates and sustains the brain, which houses the human mind, from which the self develops and evolves throughout a person's lifetime on Earth.

God Almighty started the process When He installed an essential software from His spirit in the human brain. This is what allows and enables the human self to start a life-long process of data collection, processing, and decision making while having the ability to differentiate between good and evil.

When the body dies, when it is no longer capable of sustaining the self, whether by old age, sickness, or accidental injury, then records of the human self are completed by angels.

In the Hereafter, the self is going to be judged on the basis of its performance on Earth. If it is obedient to God in its behavior, it will be living in happiness in this life and in the hereafter. But, if the human self is disobedient to God, it suffers in its Earthen life and in the hereafter.

To sum up, goodness is obedience to God and evil is disobedience to Him.

It follows that whatever happens to human beings in their life is going to be good for them in the hereafter, as long as they are obedient to God, even if they become poor, get sickor killed unjustly. It is good because their ultimate destination is an eternal happy life in Paradise. They have to work as hard as they can in their pursuit of happiness while on Earth but they have to observe God in everything they say or do.

You may get the results you want to achieve here in this life (wealth, offspring, power, prestige, reproductive activities, etc.) but there's a possibility that you may not get what you are pursuing because of circumstances beyond your control.

Success or failure, in the Islamic sense, is in how you conduct yourself during the process.

==============================================

Notes:

* Dr. Hassan Ali El-Najjar is a native speaker of Arabic. He has a Ph.D. in Sociology and a Masters degree in Cultural Anthropology from the University of Georgia, USA.

This article is based on three Friday speeches the author gave at the Dalton Islamic Center Mosque on 3 Sha'aban, 1425 (September 17, 2004),  6 Safar, 1426 (March 18, 2005), and 29 Safar, 1426 (April 8, 2005).

Though the author is solely responsible for the translation of the meanings of the verses of the the Holy Quran mentioned in this article, he consulted with the translation of Yusuf Ali (may Allah reward him for his great work in the service of Islam and Muslims).

 

  [2] "They ask you about the Spirit. Say: "The Spirit is an issue of my Lord, and the knowledge you have been given is only a little" (Al-Issra, 17: 85).

 

 

ۡٔ ٱۖ ٱ ۡ ۡ ٓ ٱۡۡ ۬   ( 17: 85).

 [3] Here are some examples from the Holy Quran about how is good, leading to happiness, and how is bad or evil, leading to suffering:

(In) a coming Day, no soul shall speak except by His permission. Of those (gathered) some will be wretched and some will be happy.

Concerning those who are wretched, they will be in the Fire. For them therein exhaling and inhaling.

They will be everlasting therein, as long as the heavens and the earth last, except as your Lord wills, for your Lord is the Doer of what He wants.

And concerning those who will be happy, they will be in the Paradise, everlasting therein, as long as the heavens and the earth last, except as your Lord wills, an extended gift (Hood, 11: 105-108).

  ۚ

ۚ

ۖ ( 11: 105-108).

  [4] Disobedience to God associated with punishment and suffering of offenders is mentioned about 32 times in the Holy Quran, pages 463-464 of the Holy Quran Index in Arabic by Muhammed Fuad Abdul Baqi. Cairo: Dar Al-Fikr. 1406 (1986). The Arabic Title is: Al-Muajam Al-Mufahras Li Alfadh Al-Quran Al-Kareem.

 

Obedience to God associated with winning ( ) has been mentioned about 29  times in the Holy Quran, page 527 of the index mentioned above.

 

More direct association between obedience to God and happiness as well as disobedience to Him and unhappiness or wretchedness can be found in verses throughout the Holy Quran.

It is not fitting for a Believer, man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allah and His Messenger, to have any option about their decision. If anyone disobeys Allah and His Messenger he is indeed clearly lost" (Al-A'hzab, 33: 36).

ۡ۬ ۡ ٱ  ۥۤ ۡ ٱۡ ۡ ۡۡۗ ۡ ٱ  ۥ ۡ ٰ۬ ۬  ( 33: 36).

And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger and transgresses His limits will be admitted to a Fire, everlasting therein, and he will have a humiliating punishment (Al-Nissa 4: 14).

ۡ ٱ  ۥ  ۥ ۡۡ ٰ۬  ۥ ۬ ۬  ( 4: 14).

... and whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, he/she has already won the greatest winning (Al-A'hzab, 33: 71).

ٱ  ۥ ۡ ۡ ( 33: 71).

"And whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger and fear Allah and avoids His wrath, these are the winners (in the end)" (Al-Room, 24: 52).

ٱ  ۥ ۡ ٱ ۡ ٰٓٮٕ ٱۡٓٮٕ  ( 24: 52).

 

  [5] See Verses 5:110, 15: 29, 21: 91, and 66: 12 in Endnote # 15.

 

  [6] The verb appears about 49 times in the Holy Quran, and the vast majority of it is in the questioning present plural form, wondering about non-believers: Dont they  reason?  ( ).

 

  [7] Examples of some verses in the Holy Quran, which include derivatives of the Arabic root verb 'aqala, to reason: 

i.  "Do you enjoin right conduct on the people and forget (to practice it) yourselves, and (yet) you recite the Scripture? Do you not reason?" (Al-Baqara, 2: 44).

 ۡ ٱ ٱۡ ۡ ۡ ۡ ۡ ٱٰۡۚ ۡ   ( 2: 44).

ii.  "Did they take other intercessors than Allah? Say: "Even if they have nothing and have no reasoning?" (Al-Zumar, 39: 43).

  ٱ ٱ ٓۚ ۡ ۡ ڪ ۡ ۡٔ۬ ۡ  ( 39: 43).

iii.  "Do you (people of Faith) hope that they will believe in you, while a party of them used to hear the Words of Allah (the Torah) then they would distort them knowingly, after they reasoned (understood) them" (Al-Baqara, 2: 75).

 ۡ ۡ ۡ ۡ ۬ ۡۡ ۡ ڪٰ ٱ  ۥ ۢ ۡ ۡ ۡ  ( 2: 75).

iv. "They will further say: "Had we listened or reasoned, we should not have been among the companions of the Blazing Fire!" (Al-Mulk, 67: 10).

  ۡ ۡ ۡ ۡ ٓ ٰۡ ٱ  ( 67: 10).

  [8] Page 644 of the Holy Quran Index in Arabic by Muhammed Fuad Abdul Baqi. Cairo: Dar Al-Fikr. 1406 (1986). The Arabic Title is: Al-Muajam Al-Mufahras Li Alfadh Al-Quran Al-Kareem.

Examples of verses in the Holy Quran, which include the Arabic word albab, minds:

i. "Only those with (reasoning) minds will remember (and understand God's message)" (Al-Baqara, 2: 269).

  ڪ ٓ ٱٰۡۡ  ( 2: 269).

ii. "O you who have (reasoning) minds, avoid my anger (or my punishment)" (Al-Baqara, 2: 197).

ٱ ٰٓ ٱٰۡۡ  ( 2: 197).

iii. "In the creation of the heavens and the Earth, and the alternation of night and day, there are signs for those with (reasoning) minds" (Al-Imran, 3: 190).

ۡ ٱٰٲ ٱۡۡ ٱٰۡ ٱۡ ٱ ٰ۬ ٱٰۡۡ  ( 3: 190).

The exact translation of the singular form of the noun (al-albab, ) is the mind, according to the Arabic dictionary Mukhtar Al-Sahah by Al-Razy. Ibn Katheer also mentioned that it is the mind. For educated Arabs, the singular form of the noun Lob ( )  is a reference to the core  or essence  of things.

 [9] Verses 6: 60-61 clarify the difference between the two concepts of wafah (completion of records on Earth) and mowt (physical death of the human body), the two states in which the human soul is taken over by God and His angel messengers.

 

"And He is Who takes over your souls by night and knows of what you do by day, then He sends your souls back to you to spend a determined (period of) time, then unto Him will be your return, then He will tell you of what you were doing" (Al-Ana'am, 6: 60).

 

  ٱ ٮٰڪ ٱۡ ۡ ۡ ٱ ۡڪۡ ٰۡٓ ۬ ۬ۖ ۡ ۡۡ ۡ ۡ ( 6: 60).

 

 [10] "He is the Subjugator (watching from above) over his worshippers, and He sends record keepers (angels) over you, until when death comes to one of you, Our messengers (angels) take his/her soul (thus ending his record on Earth), and they never fail in their duty" (Al-Ana'am, 6: 61).

 

  ٱۡ ۡ ۦۖ ۡ ۡۡ ٰٓ ٓ ٱۡۡ ۡ ۡ ( 6: 61).

 

The closest translation of the Arabic verb "tawafa" ( ) is  "he had his record completed." The two verses mentioned above (6: 60-61) refer to situations in which a person's records are completed and taken by angels. The first is during his/her sleep but the record will be reopened when a person wakes up. The second is a final completion of a person's record on Earth, when he/she dies.

 

Some Messengers of God, however, were lifted alive to heavens to save them from the physical death of the body but their records on Earth were completed, such as the case of Jesus Christ, peace be upon him, who had "wafah" (completion of his record on Earth) but not mowt (physical death of the human body), as stated in 3: 55. This is also the case of martyrs, whose life on Earth end but they are alive in heavens, as stated in .

 

   ٰ ٰ ۖ   ( 3: 55).

 

"(Mention) when Allah said, "O Eissa (Jesus), I am taking over your soul (completing your record on Earth), and lifting you to Me, and purifying you from those who disbelieved, and making those who follow you (dominant) over those who disbelieved until the Day of Resurrection. Then, to Me is your return, and I will judge between you concerning that in which you used to differ" (Al-'Imran, 3: 55).

 

  ۚ  ( 3: 169).

 

"And do not count those who have been killed in the cause of Allah as dead. Rather, they are alive near their Lord, receiving provision" (Al-'Imran, 3: 169).

 

 [11] Verse 67 of Chapter 6 of the Holy Quran assures us that every bit of news has a destination where it can be saved or recorded, and prophetically tells us that we will know that this can and will happen, and you'll discover that in the Day of Judgement.

 

"For every every bit of news (information), there is a destination (to be saved in), and you will know it" (Al-Ana'am, 6: 67).

  ۬ ۡ۬ۚ ۡ ۡ  ( 6: 67). 

      

 [12] Humans are created with an inherent ability to differentiate between good and evil deeds. And whatever they do or say after that is a matter of choice. As a result, they will be held accountable for the decisions they make. This meaning is expressed in Verse 90: 10. 

 

"And We guided him (the human being to be able to decide between) the two paths (of good and evil)?" (Al-Balad, 90: 10).

 ٰۡ ٱۡۡ ( 90: 10).

 

 [13] By the self (soul), and how He has fashioned it;

 

 And how He inspired it with (choice between) its deviance and its piety (8).

 (Al-Shams, 91: 7-8). 

 ۡ۬ ٮٰ (٧)

 

  ۡ ۡٮٰ ( 91: 7-8).

 

 [14] Pages 710-714 of the Holy Quran Index in Arabic by Muhammed Fuad Abdul Baqi. Cairo: Dar Al-Fikr. 1406 (1986). The Arabic Title is: Al-Muajam Al-Mufahras Li Alfadh Al-Quran Al-Kareem.

 

Here are ten of them selected as examples. The first five examples represent a reference to the nafs (self) during its life on Earth, and the other five representing its life in the hereafter.

i.  "There is no self (soul) but has a record keeper over it" (Al-Tariq, 86: 4).

     ( 86: 4).

The exact translation of hafedh (۬) is memorizer or record keeper, as explained above.

ii.  "And when you murdered a self (a soul of a man) and disputed over it, but Allah was to bring out that which you were concealing"  (Al-Baqara, 2: 72).

 ۡ ۡۡ ۡ۬ ٱٲٲٔۡۡ ǝۖ ٱ ۡ۬ ۡ ۡ  ( 2: 72).

iii.  "Allah does not place a burden on a self (soul) greater than it can bear" (Al-Baqara, 2: 286).

  ٱ ۡ ۡۚ  ( 2: 286).

iv.  Allah will not delay (ending the life) of a self (soul) when the time appointed (for it) has come: and Allah is well-acquainted with what you do.  (Al-Munafiqoon, 63: 11).

  ٱ ۡ ٓ ǝۚ ٱ ۢ ۡ  ( 63: 11).

v. "And I swear by the self-reproaching self" (Al-Qiyamah, 75: 2).

 ٓ ۡ ٱۡ ٱ   ( 75: 2).

vi.  "Lest the self (soul) should (then) say: Ah! woe is me! For I neglected (my duty) towards Allah, and I was among the mockers!  (Al-Zumar, 39: 56).

  ۡ۬ ٰٰۡ ٰ ۢ ٱ ٱٰ  ( 39: 56).

vii.  "Allah has created the heavens and the earth for just ends, and in order that every self (soul) may be recompensed for what it has earned, and they will not be treated unjustly" (Al-Jathiya, 45: 22).

  ٱ ٱٰٲ ٱۡۡ ٱۡ ٰۡ ۭۡ ڪۡ ۡ ۡ  ( 45: 22).

viii.  "Every self (soul) will be hostage to what it has earned" (Al-Muddathir, 74: 38).

  ۭۡ ۡ  ( 74: 38).

ix.  "A self (soul) will know what it has brought" (Al-Takweer, 81: 14).

 ۡ ۡ۬ ٓ ۡۡ   ( 81: 14).

x"A self will know what it has done in the first (life on Earth), and the latter (in the hereafter, when it will be judged)" (Al-Infitar, 82: 5).

 ۡ ۡ۬ ۡ ۡ   ( 82: 5).

  [15] Here are the 19 verses, which mention the word roo'h ( ), or Spirit of God, in the Holy Quran.

i. "They ask you about the Spirit (Al-Roo'h). Say: "The Spirit is an issue of my Lord, and the knowledge you have been given (about it) is only a little" (Al-Issra, 17: 85).

 ۡٔ ٱۖ ٱ ۡ ۡ ٓ ٱۡۡ ۬

ii. We gave 'Eissa Bin Maryam (Jesus, the Son of Mary) clear signs and supported him with a spirit of the Holy" (Al-Baqara, 2: 87).

 ۡ ٱۡ ۡ ٱٰۡ ٰۡ ٱۡ  ( 2: 87).

iii. We gave 'Eissa Bin Maryam (Jesus, the Son of Mary) clear signs and supported him with a spirit of the Holy (Al-Baqara, 2: 253).

 ۡ ٱۡ ۡ ٱٰۡ ٰۡ ٱۡۗ  ( 2: 253).

iv. The Messiah, 'Eissa Bin Maryam (Jesus, the Son of Mary) was a Messenger of Allah and His Word, which He threw to Maryam (Mary), and a spirit from Him (Al-Nissa, 4: 172).

  ٱۡ ٱۡ ۡ ٱ ڪ ۥۤ ۡٮٰٓ ٰ ۡ ۬ ۡۖ  ( 4: 172).

v. He sends down the angels with a spirit of His command, to whoever He wishes of His worshippers (Al-Na'hl,16: 2).

Bin Katheer explained the spirit (roo'h) as inspiration (wa'hi).

  ٱٰۡٓٮٕ ٱ ۡ ۡۦ ٰ ٓ ۡ ۦۤ ( 16: 2).

vi. The trusted Spirit came down with it (Al-Shu'ara, 26: 193).

  ٱ ٱۡ  ( 26: 193).

Interpreters agree that the trusted Spirit is the Senior Angel Jibril (Gabriel), who communicates Gods messages to His human messengers through inspiration.

vii. Those, He has written Faith in their hearts, and supported them with a spirit from Him. And He will admit them to Gardens beneath which rivers flow, everlasting therein (Al-Mujadala, 58: 22).

 ٰٓٮٕ ڪ ٱٰۡ ۬ ۡۖ ۡۡ ٰ۬ ۡ ۡ ٱٰۡۡ ٰ ǝۚ  ( 58: 22).

viii. The angels and the Spirit ascend unto Him in a Day the measure of which is fifty thousand years (Al-Ma'arij, 70: 4).

 ۡ ٱٰۡٓٮٕڪ ٱ ۡ ۡ۬ ۡ ۥ ۡ ۡ ۬  ( 70: 4).

As mentioned in footnote # 6, the Spirit is the Senior Angel, Jibril (Gabriel).

ix. "The Day in which the Spirit and the angels will stand forth lining up, none will speak except that who is permitted by the Beneficent, and he will say what is right" (Al-Naba, 78: 38).

 ۡ ٱ ٱٰۡٓٮٕ ۬ǝۖ ۡ ٱٰۡ ۬  ( 78: 38).

Here, it is clear that the Spirit is the angel Jibril (Peace to him).

x. And thus We have inspired to you a spirit of Our command (Al-Shoora, 42: 52).

 ٲ ۡۡٓ ۡ ۬ ۡ ۡǝۚ  ( 42: 52).

The word "spirit" (roo'h) here means the information or the message received by messengers of God through inspiration.

xi. then We sent to her Our Spirit, who appeared to her as a man in all respects. (Maryam, 19: 17).

 ۡۡٓ ۡ ۬ ۬  ( 19: 17).

Here, it is clear that the Spirit is the Senior Angel Jibril (Peace to him).

xii. and We blew into her (body) of Our spirit. (Al-Ta'hreem, 66: 12).

 ۡ  ( 66: 12).

xiii. He throws the spirit of His command on whoever He wishes of His worshipper, to warn of the Day of Meeting (Ghafir, 40: 15).

 ۡ ٱ ۡ ۡۦ ٰ ٓ ۡ ۦ ۡ ٱ  ( 40: 15).

xiv. Then He fashioned him (in due proportions), and blew into him of His Spirit (Al-Sajda, 32: 9).

  ٮٰ ۦۖ   ( 32: 9).

xv. "When I have fashioned him (in due proportions) and blown into him of My Spirit, fall you down to him prostrating." (Al-'Hijr, 15: 29).

  ۡ ۥ ۡ  ۥ ٰ  ( 15: 29).

xvi. Then will Allah say: "O 'Eissa Bin Maryam (Jesus, the Son of Mary)! Recount my blessing (favor) to you and to your mother, as I supported you with a spirit of the Holy (Al-Maeda, 5: 110).

 ۡ ٱ ٰ ٱۡ ۡ ٱۡڪۡ ۡ ۡ ٰ ٲ ۡ ٱۡ  ( 5: 110).

xvii. Say the Spirit of the Holy has brought it (the revelation) down from your Lord in truth (Al-Na'hl, 16: 102).

 ۡ  ۥ ٱۡ ٱۡ  ( 16: 102).

The Spirit of the Holy is the angel Jibril (Gabriel), peace to him.

xviii. Therein come down the angels and the Spirit by their Lord's permission, (to carry out) every one of (His) command (Al-Qadr, 97: 4).

  ٱٰۡٓٮٕ ٱ ۡ ۡ۬  ( 97: 4).

ixx. We blew into her of Our Spirit. (Al-Anbiya, 21: 91).

 ۡ  ( 21: 91).

 

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* Dr. Hassan Ali El-Najjar is a native speaker of Arabic. He has a Ph.D. in Sociology and a Masters degree in Cultural Anthropology.

 

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