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Islam: A Scientific View of God's Message to Humanity

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

Table of Contents  

I. Introduction: Basic Information   

1. Islam: A Brief Introduction    

2. Three Levels of Faith: Islam, Iman, and Ihsan    

3. The Scientific Evidence That God Exists and the Holy Qur'an Is His Message to Humanity    

4. Creation and Evolution in the Holy Qur'an   

5. Humans, As God's Caliphs on Earth   

6. Adam's Contest With the Angels, and Getting Out of Paradise  

7. Worshippers By Choice Or Forced Slaves?    

8. The Relationship Between the Spiritual and the Physical Aspects of Islamic Teachings   

9. Mind, Self, Soul, Spirit, and Happiness from an Islamic Perspective  

10. Heart-Mind Relationship in the Holy Qur'an    

II. Islam: The Five Pillars of the Faith Structure  

11. Islamic Proclamation of Faith  

12. Performing Islamic Prayers  

13. Giving Zakat, Charity, The Third Islamic Duty  

14. Fasting and Ramadhan, Great Gifts from Allah to Muslims  

15. Haj, Pilgrimage, the Fifth Pillar of Islam  

III. Iman: Allah, His Angels, Messengers, Messages, Latter Day, and Qadar  

16. Allah, As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran    

17. Angels  

18. Noo'h, Noah, in the Holy Quran     

19. Ibrahim, Abraham, in the Holy Quran

20. Moussa, Moses, in the Holy Quran  

21. 'Eissa, Jesus Christ, in the Holy Quran    

22. Muhammed in the Holy Quran   

23. Prophet Muhammed's Night Journey and Ascent to Heavens, Al-Issra Wal Mi'raj  

24. The Last Day, The Hour, Resurrection, Reckoning, and Judgment

25. God's Precise Measurement and His Just Decree, Al-Qadar Wal Qadha

IV. I'hsan: Watching Allah in What We Say and What We Do  

1. Introduction to Islamic Law, Shari'a, Part I, Prohibition, Don't Do, and Do Commands in the Holy Quran   

2. The La (No) Commands  

3. The Imperative Commands   

***

Articles with Islamic Perspective:

Health Care Crisis in the US: An Islamic Perspective

"Terrorism" & "Islamo-Fascism" Propaganda Campaigns: An Interactive Lecture

Six Questions About Islam, Muslims and Jews

Five Islamic Issues: Predestination and choice, position toward other religions, angels, and the End of Days

Food Islamic Rules and Teachings
 

Are Muslim women second-class citizens  

The French Ban on Islamic Headscarf, an Interview with

Links to Islamic Topics 2007-2010

Links to Islamic Topics 2007

Links to Islamic topics 2006

Links to Islamic topics 2005

Links to Islamic topics 2004

Links to Islamic topics, 2003

2002 Links to Islamic topics

 





 

 

 

Islam:

A Scientific View of God's Message to Humanity

 4

Creation and Evolution in the Holy Quran 

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

 13th Day of Shawwal, 1428  October 29, 2007

Revision completed on 21st Day of Sha'aban, 1433  -  July 10, 2012

***

1428 -  2007

  1438 - 2017

***

 

ٰ

 

I seek refuge with God from the Stoned Shaytan

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

***

 

Introduction

Through the meanings of the first ten Quran verses addressed in Chapter 3 of this book, we saw how Allah (God) started the creation of the universe, including the seven heavens and the seven earth-like planets, as well as the intelligent beings living in them. This Chapter focuses on the themes of creation and evolution, by addressing how Allah started the creation of life on Earth and how He left it to evolve as a result of learning from adaptation to the various environments, with His intervention to improve His creation.

In particular, the creation and evolution of human beings will be addressed through the discussion of the following 43 verses, which the author identified in the Holy Quran and presented in a suggested order of creation and evolution. 

Meanings of these verses are explained by consulting with the three renowned interpreters of the Holy Quran (Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer). Then, the meanings are compared with the scientific evidence, particularly from anthropology, biology, and cosmology. The objective is to tell the story of God's creation of life and how it evolved on Planet Earth, not only by using the linguistic meanings of the verses but also by using the relevant scientific facts.

From the meanings of these verses, researchers can find support for the evolutionary theory, which dominates all natural sciences. Moreover, the scientific facts included in these verses represent further pieces of evidence that the author of the Holy Quran is Allah, the All Knowledgeable, as humans did not know these facts until the establishment of modern sciences, during the second half of the 19th Century.

1-2. Verses 29: 19-20 include God's command to us to travel through the Earth, to study how He began His creation, in order to explain to us how He can repeat it again in the Hereafter.

 ۚ ٰ ﴿ 29: 19.

 ۚ  ۚ ٰ ﴿ 29: 20.  

Do they not see how Allah begins the Creation, then repeats it? That is easy for Allah (to do) (Al-'Ankaboot, 29: 19).

Say: "Travel through the Earth and see how He began the Creation. Then, Allah makes the latter Creation.  Allah is capable of (doing) everything"  (Al-'Ankaboot, 29: 20).

Thus, the emergence of  modern sciences, which investigate how the Universe, including our solar system, started, as well as how life began and how it has continued on our planet, represents an implementation of this divine command. This included the establishment of anthropology with its four sub-disciplines (archaeological, biological, linguistic, and cultural),  biology, physics, chemistry, astrophysics, and geography, to name some of them.

3. Verse 50: 15 confirms what was mentioned in Verse 29: 19 above, that there was a first creation of life on Earth.

  ٱۡۡ ٱۡۚ ۡ ۡ ۡ۬ ۡ ۡ۬ ( 50: 15).

Were We then tired with the first creation? (No), they (nonbelievers) are in confusion about a new creation (Qaf, 50: 15).

4. Verse 21: 30 tells us that the heavens and the Earth were joined together as one entity before they were splintered, and that every living thing was made out of water.

   ( 21: 30).  

Have not those who disbelieve seen (known) that the heavens and the Earth were of one connected entity, then We splintered (separated) them, and We made every living thing out of water? Will they not then believe? (Al-Anbiya', 21: 30).

This verse is a source of support for scientists who have reached the established biological fact that water is necessary for any life form. For decades, space programs have had a major goal of investigating whether there is water on other planets or not, in order to begin the exploration of whether there is life on those planets or not. This Verse and several other verses in the Holy Quran have stated clearly that every living being has been created from water.

Water covers about seventy percent of the surface of the Earth, which has provided it with the essential requirement of life. We know now the components of cells in primitive unicellular organisms. However, scientists do not know how life started in the first cell, and they have never been able to create life in a cell.

This Verse tells us that it is God, Who created living beings out of water. As we learn from the verses addressed below, He did that by blowing of His Spirit into the first cell, creating life in it, which became the primary software or DNA of living things.

5. Verse 20: 30 tells us that the first creation of life on Earth was out of earth matter (dust or soil), in addition to water, as mentioned in Verse 21: 30 above.

" ( 30: 20).

And of His signs is that He created you from the earth matter (dust or soil).Then, you became humans spreading (throughout the Earth) (Al-Room, 30: 20).

Water is the first condition for life to exist but this Verse tells us that the earth matter was the other condition for the human life to exist. The most relevant word in this verse is "turab," which is the earth matter that can be translated into dust or soil. The same word is also mentioned in five other verses in relation to the first creation of life on Earth. [1]

6. Verse 32: 7 tells us that the first creation of life was in clay, which is a combination of water and earth matter (dust or soil).

( 32: 7).

(Allah is He) who has made everything He created better, and He began the creation of the human (being) out of clay (Al-Sajda, 32: 7).

In this verse, we are told that the first creation of human beings was out of clay, but that was the beginning. The most relevant word in this verse is "began" (bada-a), which tells us clearly that the creation happened in a process that had a beginning. It did not happen at once.

Water is the basic condition for life to exist, as we know from Verse 21: 30, mentioned above, but in Verse 30: 20, the earth matter (dust or soil) is added as a second condition. In this Verse (32: 7), we learn that the first creation of life was in clay, which is a confirmation for the previously-mentioned two verses, as clay is the combination of water and earth matter (dust or soil). This is also what we know from the scientific evidence available to us today, as there is a wide agreement among scientists that the beginning of life was in clay, which is basically composed of water and earth matter (dust or soil). [2]

7. Verse 37: 11 describes the clay, in which life started, as sticky clay:

ۚ ( 37: 11).

Then, (O Muhammad) inquire of them (the Makkan nonbelievers), "Are they a stronger creation (than others) We have created?" Indeed, We created them from sticky clay (Al-Saffat, 3711).

The three renowned interpreters of the Holy Quran agreed on the meaning of the word "lazib," in the verse, as sticky. Thus, the first creation of life began in sticky clay. Its molecules were sticky to each other and it would stick to anything that touched it.

8. Verse 15: 26 provides another description of the clay used in the first creation of life, mentioning that it was dry clay with a stinking smell.

  ( 15: 26).

We created the human being from dry clay, molded of blackened (and) stinking mud (Al-'Hijr, 15: 26).

This verse gives a very specific description of the environment where life started. It refers to places, where water was combined with the earth matter (dust or soil), creating stinking clay. This description is the same as the one used by biologists, who mention that life on Earth started in clay, where water is mixed with the earth matter (dust or soil). This includes various primary elements, some of which have stinking smell, such as hydrogen sulfides, thus making the clay stinking, precisely as mentioned in this Verse. [3]

9. Verse 55: 14 confirms that the clay of the first creation was dry, like pottery.

  ( 55: 14).

 He created the human (being) of a hard clay, like pottery (Al-Ra'hman, 55: 14).

This Verse (55: 14) tells us that the clay, which was used for the first creation of life, was dry, like pottery, confirming what was mentioned in Verse 15: 26 above. However, when such dry clay was moistened with water, it became suitable for the start of life in it, as water is the first condition for life to exist (21: 30).

10. Verse 71: 14 tells us that the creation of humans happened in stages, not at once, as was also mentioned in Verse 32: 7, by the use of the verb "began" (bada-a).Thus, the creation of humans from clay was the first stage of the first creation, which was followed by other stages, as we learn from other verses below.

ۡ ۡ ۡ  ( 71: 14).

He has created you in diverse (and successive) stages (Noo'h, 71: 14).

From the following verses, we learn that there are two creations. The first one was in nature, which included five stages. These are starting life in the cell, fashioning humans in the right proportions, walking on two legs, imaging, and blowing of God's Spirit. The second creation is in the womb, which also includes five stages. These are the fertilized egg (zygote), leech, lump (like a chewed substance), bones, and muscles, as will be discussed later in Verse 23: 14 below.

11. Verse 6: 2 tells us that after Allah had created life in clay, He willed to leave His creation on its own, for a certain time He determined.

( 6: 2).  

He is Who created you from clay, then He spent a term of time (away from you), and (it is) a specific term He determined. Yet, you doubt (His ability) (Al-An'am, 6: 2)!.

Scientists generally, and biologists and anthropologists in particular, can have support from this Verse, as well as from the following verses, for their evolutionary explanation of how different species evolved on Earth, on their own, in specific periods of time, when Allah, praise to Him, determined to spend some time away from His creation.

Thus, this Verse summarizes the two concepts of creation and evolution. While creation refers to God's intervention, making changes and improvements on His creation, evolution refers to the changes which happen to organisms as a result of their interaction and adaptation to their physical and social environment. This is also the essence of the evolutionary theory, which dominates all natural sciences.

12. Verse 4: 1 tells us that at the start of the first creation, there was only one living self (unicellular organism). Then, another self (cell) came out of it, to become its mate. The Verse also tells us that these two primary cells were the origins of the second creation of men and women (in the womb).

 ( 4: 1).


O humans!
Be pious (careful of your duty) to your Lord, Who created you from a single self (living cell), and from it He created its mate, and from them He has spread a multitude of men and women (Al-Nissa, 4: 1).

Biological science tells us that the earliest form of life was represented by single cell organisms found in water, then these multiplied by splitting themselves. With the course of time, reproduction evolved to become as a result of pair-mating, instead of the archaic forms of splitting or dividing. (See Appendix 1 about the "Origins of Life on Earth," as agreed upon by natural scientists).

13. Verse 82: 7 mentions the first three stages of the first creation. These are starting life in the first cell, fashioning with the right proportions, and walking upright on two legs.

( 82: 7).

It is He Who created you, fashioned you with the right proportions, and straightened you up (Al-Infitar, 82: 7).

The first stage was the creation of life in the first cell (unicellular prokaryote), as expressed in the Arabic verb khlaqa (created). The second stage was fashioning with the right proportions, as expressed in the Arabic verb sawwa, in which the unicellular prokaryote organisms evolved to the multicellular eukaryote organisms, including animals. While humans share the first two stages with other organism, the third stage represented the human departure from the animal kingdom. This is expressed by the Arabic verb 'adala, which means that God straightened up humans, enabling them to walk in an upright way, on two legs. These three stages are recognized now as scientific facts, taught in biology textbooks. [4]  

In their interpretation of the verb 'adalak in Verse 82: 7, the three interpreters explained it as "straightened you up," but Ibn Katheer elaborated more about the meaning. He mentioned a 'Hadith from the Prophet, pbbuh, that Allah, praise to Him, created humans in the best image and the right proportion and made them walk in a balanced way, in an upright position, which allowed them to walk between the two cold times of the day (before the sunrise and before the sunset).

This is maybe a reference to the homo erectus, which marked a major departure of humans from their closest kin in the primate family. The Prophet's mentioning of walking between the two cold times maybe a reference to the fact that walking on two legs, instead of all four as animals do, has allowed humans to earn their living, explore, migrate, and ultimately live in all regions of the earth. We learn this from the word "bardayn" in the Hadith may refer to the two coolest times of the day, from dawn until before the sunset. [5]

14. Verse 64: 3 refers to a fourth main stage of the first creation of life on Earth, which is humans in the best of images.

 ۖ   ( 64: 3).

He created the heavens and the Earth in truth and imaged you in the best of images, and to Him is the (final) destination (Al-Taghabun, 64: 3).

In this fourth stage, the Creator made humans in the best of images, that is in beauty, grace, and the right proportions of features, as expressed in the Arabic verb a'hsana sowarakum (made you in the best of images). It's amazing that many people do not appreciate this divine honor for them, as they inject harmful substances to their bodies, or eat too much without hard work or exercise, which may result in diseases and pain, as well as in tarnishing the divine beauty God bestowed on them!

15. Verse 82: 8 tells us that the genetic structure of the human child represents that which is shared with humanity and before.

 ( 82: 8).

In whatever image (form) He willed, He assembled you (Al-Infitar, 82: 8).

In explaining this verse, Al-Tabari and Ibn Katheer mentioned the Prophet's 'Hadith, in which he said, "When the fertilized egg settles in the womb, Allah connects it genetically to Adam." Al-Qurtubi agreed with them, in that the human fetus may reflect characteristics and features of relatives and non-relatives, and even features of animals.

So, despite the fact that people may differ in their external features, such as their height, weight, skin color, and facial feature, yet they carry the same genetic heritage they share with other humans, since the first creation, all the way to Adam, and their parents. Most likely, people may look like their parents and close relatives but it is possible that they may differ from them. Some people may even have some features of animals, such as in the shape of their ears, noses, mouths, chins, necks, and eyes. 

16. Verse 15: 29 refers to a fifth main stage in the first creation of life on Earth, which was blowing part of God's Spirit in humans.

( 15: 29).  

And when I have proportioned him and blown into him of My Spirit, then fall down to him in prostration (Al-'Hijr, 15: 29 ; Sad, 38: 72).

This Verse, which was also repeated in 38: 72, shows that blowing God's Spirit was the fifth stage of the first creation, which preceded God's command for angels to prostate to Adam. The evidence for this conclusion is the use of the conjunctive letter f (fa), which refers to direct temporal sequence of events, without delay. In comparison with Verse 7: 11, the command of prostration came with the use of the conjunctive word "thumma," which means then and refers to a delayed temporal sequence of events.

Concerning God's Spirit, which was blown into humans, we know little about that, as Verse 17: 85 tells us. However, there is a slight discussion about God's Spirit in Chapter 9 of this book, "Mind, Self, Spirit, Soul, and Happiness."

Blowing God's Spirit in humans, in the fourth stage of the first creation, distinguished them from animals and honored them, by giving them the noble human characteristics, such as choice, acquisition of knowledge, and construction, which are discussed in Chapter 5, "Humans, as God's Caliphs on Earth."

But it can be said that the blowing of God's Spirit in humans was a way to honor them and to elevate their status among other creatures. It added to the human DNA a number of noble characteristics, such as the ability to distinguish choose between right and wrong, logic, the ability to abstain from doing harm to the self and others, planning, expression, acquisition of knowledge, and construction, as will be discussion in Chapter 5, "Humans, as God's Caliphs on Earth."  

17-20. Verse 7: 11 refers to God's command to angels, to prostrate to Adam, as a sign to honor humans and in recognition to their intellectual capabilities.     

  ( 7: 11).

And We created you (humans, in plural form), then imaged you (also addressing humans in plural form), then said to the angels: Prostrate to Adam! And they prostrated, all except Iblis (Satan), who was not of those who made prostration (Al-A'raf, 7: 11).

This Verse refers to the greatest event in the history of humanity, which was also mentioned in Verse 15: 29 above. In comparison with other species on Earth, humans reached a high level of intellect and morality, which qualified them for the honor of receiving communication from their Creator, who decided to make them His caliphs (deputies) on Earth.

The high level of intellect was reflected in the human capability to invent various ways of communication, including language, which facilitated the exchange of information and ideas. This, in turn, helped humans to adapt to their various environments, utilizing available resources, and consequently achieving more prosperity.

If we compare the human mental and communication capabilities with those of their closest relatives in the animal kingdom, the chimpanzees, we find that humans have excelled as a result of having numerous physiological advantages. A major difference between humans and other animals is that humans are much more intelligent than any animal species on the planet, as measured by the EQ comparisons. Humans also have very much larger brain processing and memory centers, which contributes to advanced communication capabilities. In addition, the human pharynx is shaped as a right angle, which enables the production of precise sounds, by the tight control of air, passing through the vocal cords. These precise sounds became the basic units of human languages. With these communication and mental capacities, humans became capable of advanced thinking, complex processing of information, communication with others, and receiving communication from their Creator, through inspiration. [6]

Humans also have achieved the capability to be moral beings, which they gained from their Creator's blowing of His Spirit into their DNA. So, they became inclined to do good, capable of distinguishing between right and wrong, and in possession of the will to choose their decisions and deeds. Therefore, they became accountable to such decisions and deeds. Physiologically speaking, the front lobe of the human brain, which processes intellectual, moral, and ethical issues, is much larger and more developed in the human brain than in brains of any other species on Earth. [7]

Verses 11: 56 and 96: 15-16 mention the forehead, the front lobe of the brain, as the part in which intellectual, moral, and ethical processes take place. Consequently, front lobe will be held responsible for the committed lies and sins.

    ٰ ( 11: 56).

Indeed, I have relied upon Allah, my Lord and your Lord. There is no creature but that He holds its forehead. Indeed, my Lord is on a straight path (Hood, 11: 56). 

﴿١٥﴾ ﴿١٦﴾ ( 96: 15: 16).

Does he not know that Allah sees? (14) No! If he does not desist, We will surely strike (his) forehead - (15) A lying, sinning forehead. (16) (Al-'Alaq, 96: 14-16).

In Arabic dictionaries, the word nasiya, mentioned in the Verse, means the forehead. In his interpretation of Verse 11: 56, Al-Qurtubi also mentioned clearly that the Arabic word nasiya, mentioned in the Verse, means the forehead, which may become a lying and sinning forehead. [8]

In recognition of these human advanced intellectual and moral capabilities and achievements, Allah decided to make humans His caliphs (deputies) on Earth. The angels were surprised because they saw some humans shedding blood and committing acts of corruption. So, Allah chose Adam to represent humanity (3: 33), in a contest between him and the angels, to show them that he is worthy of God's trust and honor, as He created him with His own hands (38: 75). When Adam won the contest, Allah commanded the angels to prostrate to him, in recognition of his winning. All angels obeyed and prostrated, except Iblis (Satan), who refused, arguing that he was better than humans, and saying that he was created of fire while Adam was created originally of clay. Further, he asked Allah to delay his punishment, to prove his point that humans are not worthy of God's trust in them. Allah accepted the challenge because of His knowledge that many humans are going to be good and thankful to Him. He warned Satan, his offspring, and their followers among the Jinn and humans that all will be punished in the hellfire (7: 12-18, 11: 119), as will be discussed in Chapter 6, "Adam's Contest with the Angels and Getting Out of Paradise."

Humans have demonstrated that they are worthy of God's trust in them, as they have continued to worship Him by choice (90: 10), while angels worship Him as a result of their obedient nature (66: 6). Moreover, humans are capable of the acquisition of knowledge (2: 31), and they like to make things and construct (11: 61), as will be discussed in Chapter 5 of this book. This God's trust in at least some humans to be wise, as rulers of His Earth, was also recognized by anthropologists, who have called the current human species as homo sapien sapien (the wise human). [9]

21. In Verse 14: 19, we read a threat that Allah, Who created heavens and Earth with the right proportions, may cause humans to disappear if He wills: 

( 14: 19).

 Have you not seen that Allah has created the heavens and the earth with the right proportions? If He wills, He can remove you and bring ( in your place ) a new creation (Ibrahim, 14: 19).

There are two meanings relevant to the subject of this Chapter in the above verse. First, Allah, praise to Him, has created heavens and Earth with the right proportions, which is a reference to the perfect system of interrelationships between components of the universe.

The Earth is placed in a perfect position and distance from the sun in order for life to flourish and continue on it. Proximity and distance from the closest point to the sun on Earth (the equatorial region) has led to the variation of environments and climates, leading to the wonderful variation in the fauna and flora in the biosphere. The proportion of water in the planet (70%) is equal to the proportion of water in the human body. The balance between oxygen and carbon dioxide and the formation of the ozone, which protects Earth from the harmful ultraviolet cosmic radiation, all are examples of the right proportions of creation mentioned in the above verse.

The second meaning is related to God's threat that He can cause humans to disappear if they disobey Him and bring a new creation, which is better. Natural scientists may find support from the meaning of this verse to their theories about the many now-extinct species, which once dominated Earth, like dinosaurs.

22. Verse 76: 11 tells us that there was a time in which humans went extinct, without a trace on Earth.

ٰ ( 76: 1).

Has there (not) come upon the human (being) a period of time when he was not a mentioned thing? (Al-Insan, 76: 1).

Biologists and anthropologists, in particular, may find support in Verse 76: 1 for their hypotheses about disappearances of some early human species, such as Homo Erectus and Neanderthals (Appendix 2), as the Verse states that there was a time in which humans disappeared (were not a mentioned thing). This Verse also refers to God's ability to bring the extinct species back to life, and consequently to His ability to resurrect humans for reckoning and judgment, in the

23. Verse 32: 8 tells us about the second creation of life, in the womb. As males and females, later, paired to reproduce, taking other life forms in the sea and on land. Reproduction has become in the form of uniting the watery genetic materials of males and females.

( 32: 8).

Then He made his offspring from a quintessence of (parents') despised water (Al-Sajda, 32: 8).

24. Verse 32: 9 mentions two stages of the first creation, which are shaping in due proportions and blowing God's Spirit in humans. It also mentions the development of the fetus in the second creation, in the womb.

  ( 32: 9).

 

Then He shaped him (in due proportions), and blew in him of His Spirit, and made for you hearing, sight, and hearts; (however) little thanks you give (Al-Sajda, 32: 9).

Thus, Allah, praise to Him, has bestowed life on His creation, including humans, by giving them part of His Spirit, a software that enables them to be living, through the functioning of their organs. However, He honored humans by another software which allows them to distinguish good from evil and consequently enables them to choose their actions (For more about blowing some of Gods spirit in humans, see Chapter 9: Mind, Self, Soul, Spirit, and Happiness from an Islamic Perspective).

25. In Verse 71: 17, Allah, praise to Him, teaches us about the story of the human life by giving an analogy between humans and plants, as both came out of the earth.

ٱ ۢ ٱۡ ۬  ( 71: 17).

 And Allah has caused you to grow out of the earth like plants (Noo'h, 71: 17).

This means that originally organisms started in the earth, inside the stinking clay, then they left to the sea and to the surface of the earth, like plants which grow out of the earth to appear on its surface.

A related meaning is that Allah has (originally) planted humans and other organisms in earth and caused them to grow out of it like plants, which pass through different and successive metamorphosing stages, from seeds to growing plants, then to the flowering stage, and ultimately to the death of the grown plants. However, life restarts, as the dying plants produce seeds, which repeat the cycle of life again. The analogy also indicates that humans will be resurrected for reckoning in the Last Day, just like plants are resurrected after their death, through the seeds, as discussed in Chapter 24.

26. Verse 18: 37 details the meaning mentioned in Verse 71: 14 above (He has created you in diverse (and successive) stages), by mentioning the first creation and some stages of the second creation (in the womb), as follows:

( 18: 37).

His companion said to him, while arguing with him: Have you disbelieved in Him Who created you of the earth matter (dust or soil), then of a nutfah (union of a fathers sperm and a mothers egg), then fashioned you into a man? (Al-Kahf, 18: 37). 

While mentioning earth matter (dust or soil), in this Verse, is a reference to the first creation, mentioning nutfah (union of a fathers sperm and a mothers egg) is a reference to the first stage of the second creation, in the womb, which is followed by four other stages, as explained in Verse 23: 14, later. 

Mentioning the sex of the fetus (then fashioned you into a man) is a reference to the scientific fact that the external sexual organs start to appear about six weeks after the egg fertilization. However, distinguishing males from females is possible starting from the ninth week after fertilization. [10]  

27. Verse 35: 11 confirms the meanings mentioned in Verse 18: 37 and adds another meaning related to reproduction by pairing:

( 35: 11).

 Allah created you from the earth soil, then from a nutfah (union of a fathers sperm and a mothers egg), then He made you pairs (or mates: males and females) (Fatir, 35: 11).

28. Verse 40: 67 adds the second stage of the second creation, in the womb, (the 'alawa: leech):

  ( 40: 67).

He is Who created you from the earth soil , then from a nutfah (union of a fathers sperm and a mothers egg), then from a leech (a fertilized egg sticking to the womb sucking nutrients from it like a leach), then He brings you out (of the womb) as a child (Ghafir, 40: 67).

Thus, the first stage of the second creation is the nutfah, which is the Arabic word for a fertilized egg, a zygote, or the union of a fathers sperm and a mothers egg. The second stage is described in this Verse as an 'alaqa, which is the Arabic word for a leech. In this case, it refers to a fertilized egg sticking to the womb, sucking nutrients from it, like a leech which sticks to the animal or human body, sucking blood from it.

29-31. Verses 23: 12-14 mention the first creation from clay, then list the five successive stages of the second creation in the womb:

 ۡ ۡ ٱٰۡ ٰ۬ ۬ (١٢)

ٰۡ ۡ۬ ۬ ۬ (١٣)

ۡ ٱۡ ۬ ۡ ٱۡ ۡ۬ ۡ ٱۡۡ ٰ۬ ۡ ٱٰۡ ۡ۬ ٰۡ ۡ ۚ ٱ ۡ  ٱٰۡ (١٤)   ( 23: 12-14).

We created the human being from a product of wet earth; (12)

Then, We placed it as a nutfah (fertilized egg) in a safe (deep) lodging; (13)

Then, We  created the nutfah into an alaqa (leech).

Then, We created the alaqa into mudghah (a little lump, like a chewed substance).

Then, We created the mudghah into bones.

Then, We clothed the bones with muscle.

Then, We produced it (the human being) as another creation.

So blessed be Allah, the Best of creators! (14). (Al-Mu'-minoon, 23: 12-14).

Only recently in human history, biological and medical researchers could reach such accurate knowledge about the five major stages of the fetus development, as described in the verses above.

The first stage is the nutfah (the fertilized egg), which lasts about a week after fertilization, during which its cells multiply by division. Then, it develops into 'alaqa (leech) during the second and third weeks, which is the second stage of the fetus development. It looks like a leech in its appearance and in its characteristics, as it sticks to the womb wall, from which it sucks blood, exactly like a leech which sticks to the body of an animal or a human to suck blood from it.

During the fourth week, and more specifically on the twenty-second day, the heart starts beating, and the fetus develops to the third stage of the second creation in the womb, which is the mudghah (a chewed piece of food), as it accurately looks like, without any observed organs first. Then, organs start to appear, during the fourth and fifth weeks.

A little before the end of the sixth week, specifically during days 38-40 after fertilization, the fourth stage stage of the second creation in the womb starts. The cartridge skeleton starts to form at the beginning of the seventh week, leading to the bone formation, and the appearance of the head and limbs.

Finally, the fifth stage starts at the end of the seventh week and continues during the eighth week, bones are coated with flesh (muscle), and the formation of the internal and internal organs is completed, but these continue to grow in size after that. [11]  

32. While the above-mentioned verses told us about the various stages of the first and second creations of life on this planet, the following verses attract our attention to some natural and cosmic phenomena around us, to encourage us to think about them. Some of these verses are about how the resurrection will happen in the Last Day. Other verses invite us to search for the reasons behind the differences in people's skin colors and languages, in the nature of Earth, and in the relationship between the Earth and each of the Moon and the Sun, in order to increase our faith in the Creator and to benefit from this information.

In Verse 10: 92, we read about an archaeological event, in which the mummy of the Egyptian Pharaoh is promised to be found, to be a sign for people to believe and a piece of evidence about the authenticity of the Exodus story, including the split of the sea and the drowning of the Pharaoh. 

  ( 10: 92).

Today, We save you (Pharaoh of Egypt) through saving your body so that you may be a sign for those after you . Lo! Most people are heedless of Our signs (Younus, 10: 92).

The Verse is related to the divine command for humans to travel on Earth to know how God started creation of life on the planet. This command has been fulfilled by the establishment of the modern sciences, including archaeology, which led to the discovery of the mummies of kings of ancient Egypt (the pharaohs). 

Bin Katheer (Volume 2: 203-205) mentioned that when Moussa (Moses, pbuh) hit the sea with his stick, it split like a huge cliff on each side, creating twelve paths for the twelve Israelite tribes, each one separated from the other by a glass window. When the Pharaoh and his army arrived and saw the awesome view, they were afraid to proceed but the senior angel, Jibril (Gabriel) encouraged them to continue by marching in front of them. When all of them were in the middle of the path, God ordered the sea waters to merge again, drowning them all.

Bin Katheer added that despite what they saw by their eyes, the Israelites asked Moussa to show them the body of the Pharaoh to make sure that he died. God gave them what they wanted by throwing the body of the Pharaoh to the shore, so they can see it, as a sign of God's punishment for those who oppress believers.

This author sees a different interpretation for the Arabic words liman khalfaka (to those after you). The Israelites of Moussa (pbuh) lived at the time of the Pharaoh, not after his time. Therefore, the sign was intended to be to those who would come after that time, simply because the Israelites saw the miracle and lived it by themselves.

A more accurate interpretation is that the Children of Israel crossed the Gulf of Suez, at a narrow area, about 12 miles wide, close to its northern tip. After the Pharaoh and his soldiers drowned, the sea waves threw his body on the western coast of the Gulf, not the eastern coast, where the Israelites were. Then, the Egyptians took the body back to their capital, where it was mummified, following their custom of mummifying their kings and notables. Consequently, his body was hidden until the discovery of the Egyptian mummies, in 1898, which are now displayed in the Royal Mummies Room of the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo.

There is no agreement among historians and biblical scholars about the Pharaohs involved in the story or the time frame they lived in. Ancient Egyptian records, the Bible, and the Holy Quran did neither mention the name of the Pharaoh, nor his time. However, according to Encyclopedia Britannica, the oppressive Pharaoh was Ramses II (1279-1212 BC) and the Exodus pharaoh was his son, Merneptah (1212-1202 BC). This opinion is supported by the biblical scholar by Joshua Mark, who denies that Ramses II was the drowned Pharaoh.

This opinion was also supported by Maurice Bucaille, who argued that Ramses II oppressed the Israelites but he died while Moussa (Moses) was in Mayan. This means that his son, Merneptah (1212-1202 BC) was the one who drowned while chasing the Israelites. His mummy was discovered in the Valley of Kings, in Thabes, in 1898, together with other mummies of the Egyptian pharaohs. In 1975. Bucaille participated with a group of medical doctors in examining Merneptah's mummified body and they found that he died of drowning. This specific discovery, and other scientific facts in the Holy Quran, influenced him to accept Islam, as he mentioned in his books, articles, and interviews. [12]  

33-35. Verses 17: 49-51 tell us about some archaeological prophecies, which happened, and other prophecies, which have not happened yet, mentioning God's response to human doubts about Resurrection, in the hereafter: 

( 17: 49).

( 17: 50).

ۡ ۡ۬ ڪۡ ۚ  ( 17: 51).

And they say : When we are bones and dust, are we going to be resurrected as a new creation? (Al-Issra, 17: 49).

Say: (Yes, you will be resurrected even if) you are stones or iron (Al-Issra, 17: 50).

Or a created matter, which is greater (or stronger than iron) in your minds (Al-Issra, 17: 51).

In their interpretations of these three verses, the three renowned interpreters of the Holy Quran, Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer, mentioned that the Quraysh pagans asked the Messenger of God, Muhammed (pbuh), a rhetorical question, casting doubt about God's ability to resurrect people for reckoning, in the Last Day. They asked him about how Allah is going to be able to resurrect people after their death, which turns them into bones and dust.

In response, Allah inspired His Messenger to answer them, saying that He is not only capable to resurrect them after becoming bones and dust but also if they become rocks, or iron, or stronger than iron. The three interpreters did not explain how human beings may become rocks, iron, or stronger than iron because the knowledge of their time did not allow them to know these possible changes, which may happen to humans. However, for us, these verses refer to some scientific facts and prophecies, which have already happened, and others which are continuously happening.

Verse 17: 49 mentions a fact known for a long time, which is the change of the dead body into bones and dust. However, Verse 17: 50 represents a prophecy which was not realized until the 13th Hijri Century (19th Century AD), after the establishment of modern sciences. In particular, anthropology, with its four major sub-disciplines, related to archaeology,  biology, linguistics, and culture, was established  to specialize in studying human pre-history and pre-industrial history.   

Archaeologists were able to discover various plant and animal fossils, which they classified on the bases of kind and time, including human fossils that date back to millions of years ago. Biological anthropologists with assistance from archaeological anthropologists have reconstructed human prehistory through classifying discovered human fossils by time using accurate dating methods, like potassium-argon and radio-carbon-14 methods. They have agreed on a general sequence of evolutionary changes of the human body. In particular, they have focused on studying the human skeleton, skull, and fingers among other features to investigate these evolutionary changes (See Appendix 2).

What's relevant in this verse is the fact that humans can become fossils in clay rocks but some human bodies can also become fossilized in rock layers which are rich in iron ore, thus becoming iron fossils.

Verse 17.51 continues to answer the rhetorical question, posed by the Quraysh pagans, by indicating that humans may contemplate the introduction of a fifth possible kind of changes of themselves, which may make them even stronger than iron (in addition to bones, dust, clay rocks, and iron). This could be a reference to the ideas about future biological engineering. Actually, in our time, people who lose limbs may have their lost flesh and bone limbs replaced by synthesized artificial limbs or body parts, made of iron, plastic, or other metals which are stronger than iron. Some of these metals have been used to strengthen the backbone, various bones, and teeth. Others made of materials like human cells have been used as replacement for damaged cells, such as in the case of hernia.

Thus, the verse is saying to people that the Creator will still resurrect them for reckoning, in the Day of Judgment, even if they change themselves into something stronger than iron. [13]

36. Verse 30: 22

Verse 30: 22 invites people of knowledge (scholars) to study effects of the Earth and the heavenly bodies on the human external biological differences (like skin color) and cultural differences (like languages):

    ( 30: 22).

And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the Earth, as well as the difference of your languages and colors. In these, there are signs for people of knowledge (Al-Room, 30: 20).

This verse addresses scholars from various social and natural sciences, inviting them to believe in God. For natural scientists, particularly those studying how the universe came into being (Chapter 3), this verse invites them to have a look at the verses of the Holy Quran, which tell humans how this happened. When they find that their knowledge about the universe has already been revealed in God's Book, then this is the evidence for them to believe that it is God's message to humanity.

This verse tells us that the differences in human languages and in colors of human skin are related to the creation of the heavenly bodies and the Earth, which is exactly what we know today. The Earth is shaped in the form of a less-than-prefect globe, pointed at its both poles and enlarged at its equator. This shape of the Earth allows light coming from the Sun to reach our planet in different distances, the shortest of which is to the equator and the longest is to each of the North and South poles. It follows that the equatorial region is the hottest because it is the closest to the sun, while the Arctic and Antarctic regions are the coldest because they are the farthest regions from the sun. 

The archaeological record shows that the oldest human fossils have been found in Africa, then more recent fossils have been found in Asia and Europe, and most recently in the new world. This is a reference to human migration to the north and south of the equator.

In order for the human skin to repel the harmful concentrated ultraviolet radiation from the sun and the cosmic, it has adapted to living in the equatorial region by pigmenting itself as dark as possible. As humans started to settle away from the equatorial African region, skin color started to be less and less pigmented, until it becomes the fairest skin color in the Scandinavian Peninsula. If Africa was elongated to reach the Antarctic region, as Scandinavia reaches the Arctic region, then we would see South African blonds with blue eyes.

Moreover, sufficient ultraviolet radiation in the equatorial region provides organisms with enough Vitamin D, which is necessary for bone formation. As humans migrated to the north and the south away from the equator, fairer skin color was needed in order for cells to be able to receive more ultraviolet radiation, to generate more Vitamin D.

Other primates, like chimpanzees and gorillas on the equator and the macaque monkeys in Japan have shown the same adaptation strategy. Macaque monkeys have fair skin and fair hair color with red faces, in northern Japan, in contrast to dark-skinned and dark-eyed primates in the African equatorial region. [14]

The differences in human languages may also be explained as adaptation to different environments. As various human groups started to migrate to new regions looking for new resources of plant and animal foods, they had to develop new vocabulary to describe these resources found in the new environments.

As a group settles in a territory for a long time, their vocabulary expands to include their expressions of the material components of their culture, such as the tangible things and tools, as well as the non-material components, such as their ideas, arts, and literature. 

A language starts very simple, as a pidgin, with couple of thousand words, expressing the basic components of the culture of a given group. As a group settles in a geographically marked territory, isolating it from other groups by natural barriers such as deserts, mountains, water, or forests, then the pidgin may grow to a full language as the population grows and its culture expands.

A variant of a language, a dialect, may form as a result of migration of part of the population to a new territory, or if a political or natural barrier takes place, such as in the case of American English vis-a-vis British English. Moreover, a dialect has a chance to evolve to a different language, such as the case of English, which was originally part of a Proto-Germanic language.

When speakers of different languages meet suddenly and realize that they need to continue communication with each other as groups, then they may create a new form of language known as Creole, which has components from different languages. This was the case of the Caribbean Creoles, at the beginning of the discovery of the New World. Ultimately, these Creoles become fully developed national languages, taught in schools and used in various ways of communication.

The European imperialist invasion and colonization of the New World, Africa, and Asia introduced such European languages as Spanish, Portuguese, English, and French to become the dominant or official languages after independence. The imperialist administrations imposed European languages on the indigenous populations by using them in schools. Thus, the European languages became the national and official languages in the countries of the New World.

Likewise, after the independence of many African and Asian nations, European languages continued to be used because of the existence of several national languages, in addition to having European-educated bureaucracy, which communicates only in European languages.

The use of European languages in this way is known among linguists as lingua franca, such as in the cases of India, Pakistan, Singapore, and Malaysia, in Asia. In these countries, English has become the lingua franca, the language in common, among the various linguistic groups. Most African countries have also continued to use the language of the European imperialist administrators as their lingua franca, in addition to teaching their national languages in schools and using them in the media. Thus, French became the lingua franca in Niger and Chad, Portuguese in Mozambique, and English in Nigeria and South Africa.  [15]

To sum up, the difference in human skin colors and languages is related to the adaptation to different environmental regions, which have been created by the shape of the Earth and its relationship to the Sun and the other heavenly bodies, as Verse 30: 22 points.

37-39. Verses 39: 5, 17: 12, and 36: 38 point to some scientific facts about the relationship between the Earth, the Moon, and the Sun, and how that relationship affects people on Earth:  

( 39: 5). 

He has created the heavens and the earth with the right (proportions). He makes night to succeed day (in a cycle), and He makes day to succeed night (in a cycle), and He ordained for the Sun and the Moon that each runs on for a specific time term (Al-Zumar, 39: 5). 

This verse provides us with information about how the heavens and the Earth have been created with the right proportions to allow them to be sustained and be functioning. Day and night succeed each other, as a result of the earth turning around its self. This allows living organisms to work and rest in a regular cycle. Seasons have been possible by the Earth orbiting the sun in an annual journey, which allows diversification of activities on it. Had there been only night (if for example the earth is too far away from the Sun) or only day time (if a planet is located between two suns), then life could not be sustained as it has been on Earth. The planet could be too cold or too hot to sustain prosperous life.

Thus, part of the creation of life on planet Earth is the suitable conditions of temperature, light, and darkness, which were made possible by God's creation of the heavens and the earth with the right proportions. See also Verse 14: 19, discussed above.

The verse also includes scientific facts about the Sun and the Moon. It mentions that both of them are running, each one has its own orbit, they will continue doing so for a specific term of time.

ۖ ۚ ( 17: 12).

And We have made the night and day two signs, and We erased the sign of the night and made the sign of the day visible, that you may seek bounty from your Lord, and may know the number of years and the account (of time). And everything We have set out in detail (Al-Issra, 17: 12).

From Verse 17: 12, we learn about more benefits the Sun provides for the life of organisms on Earth, by creating day and night, as a result of the Earth orbit around it. Humans have been able to create the lunar and solar calendars, which have helped them to organize their activities throughout the year and prompted them to learn counting.

ۚ ( 40: 36).

It is not allowable for the Sun to reach the Moon, nor does the night overtake the day, but each, in an orbit, is swimming (Ya Seen, 36: 40).

 its appearance and disappearance enable us to count days, months, and years.

Verse 36: 40 refers to the fact that the Earth, the Moon, and the Sun have specific orbits. For thousands of years, humans observed the changes which happen as a result of the Moon orbit around the Earth, such as the oceanic tides and recessions. They also observed the seasonal changes as a result of the Earth orbit around the Sun. However, they have not been able to know about the Sun orbit until recently. During the last few decades, we have been able to know that our Sun orbits the center of its Milky Way galaxy, once every about 225 million years. This means that it completed 22 orbits during its age, of the past five billion years. This verse had referred to that scientific fact about fourteen centuries before we discovered it. [16]

40. Verse 79: 30 mentions that the Earth is egg-shaped (a less than perfect globe), which humans did not know until few centuries ago: 

( 79: 30).

 And the Earth, after that, He made it egg-shaped (Al-Nazi'at, 79: 30).

The Earth is shaped in the form of a less-than-prefect globe, pointed at its both poles and enlarged a little bit at its equator. So, it is not flat as Europeans thought at the time of the revelation and for centuries after that. If the Holy Quran described the Earth shape as just a circular globe, then somebody would challenge it later because it is a little bit less than a perfect globe. That's why it is described as an egg-shaped, which is the closest shape that people could identify.

The egg-shape of the Earth allows the light coming from the Sun to reach our planet in different distances, the shortest of which is to the equator and the longest is to each of the North and South poles.

It follows that the equatorial region is the hottest because it is the closest to the sun, while the Arctic and Antarctic regions are the coldest because they are the farthest regions from the sun. This explains differences in human languages and skin color, as explained in Verse 30:22 above.

The most relevant word in this verse is the verb "da'ha," which means: made it look like an egg in its shape. This author never heard the usage of the verb da'ha or its noun da'hya (egg) in the eastern Mediterranean Arab region. However, he heard the noun in Libya in the early 1970s and learned that other North African Arabs use it to refer to an egg.

The Arabic dictionary, Al-Jami', mentioned that the Arabic word da'hya means an egg, and even mentioned this Verse (79: 30), referring to the Earth as an egg-shaped. [17]

Bin Katheer did not explain the meaning of the verb and its origins as he usually did in his interpretations. He stated clearly that the meaning of the verb "daha" is explained by the following verse, 79: 31. He added that God made the earth inhabitable by making water and pasture lands available.

In fact, Bin Katheer got this meaning of Verse 79: 30 from the companions of the Prophet, peace and blessings of God be upon him, and their followers, though he did not attempt to explain the origins of the meaning of the verb itself.

The egg-shape of Earth allowed the existence of the major geographical regions of vegetation and rainfall, with rain forests on the equatorial (tropical) region and less rain to the north and south of it (the dry regions), then to more rain as we go farther to the north and south (the moist regions), and finally to the absence of vegetation to the northernmost and southernmost parts of the planet (polar regions) because snow and ice cover the freezing land. See Footnote # 9 for more details.

Translators, such as Yusuf Ali, Pickthal, and Mohsin did not attempt to find a meaning to the verb "daha," and translated it as "extended" or "spread" the earth.

Moreover, by describing Earth as egg-shaped, God Almighty praise to Him is telling humans that the Holy Qur'an is His Word and message to humanity. Europeans thought that the earth was flat until Copernicus and Galileo told them that it was a globe, allowing Columbus and other explorers to sail west in order to reach India in the east. More recent geographical research showed that the earth is not a perfect globe. For more information, see Footnote # 10.

To sum up, this great verse is telling us that God, the Knowledgeable, made Earth egg-shaped, in order to make it inhabitable by His creatures. The egg-shape of the earth created the rainfall and vegetation regions, as Verse 79: 51 also reveals. This geographical diversity encouraged human migrations from less hospitable to more hospitable regions, and consequently leading to phenotypic and cultural differences between diverse human population groups. [18]

41. Verse 13: 41 gives support for the fact that Earth is a less-than-prefect globe by explaining how this has happened. 

ۡ ۡ ۡ ٱۡۡ ۡ ۡۚ ( 13: 41).

Haven't they seen that We come to Earth reducing it from its outlying parts? (Al-Ra'd, 13: 41).

The meaning is that the outlying parts of the Earth have been diminishing, as a result of climate changing conditions, such as mud-slides, rains, storms, and hurricanes, leading to its shape of a less-than-perfect globe. 

42. Verse 79: 31 mentions the relationship between the Earth vegetation and rainfall regions and its shape, as a less than perfect globe (egg-shaped): 

( 79: 31).

He produced as a result (of its egg-shape) its water and its pasture (Al-Nazi'at, 79: 31). 

This means that the Earth egg-shape has led to the diverse climate and rainfall regions, as well as diverse fauna and flora. This diversity encouraged humans to immigrate to the regions which are more abundant in water and plant life, in search for pasture and fertile lands. Consequently, immigration led to the human inhabiting of various geographical regions of Earth. Moreover, this natural diversity led to the diversity in skin color and in culture, as was explained earlier.   

43. Verse 24: 45 reminds us that the first creation was from water. It also reminds us that he second creation, which is in the womb, is also from water of the male and the female. Then, it tells us how organism, particularly mammals, move on earth, crawling on bellies, or walking on two legs, or on four legs:

 (  24: 45).

Allah has created every [living] creature from water. And of them are those that move on their bellies, and of them are those that walk on two legs, and of them are those that walk on four. Allah creates what He wills. Indeed, Allah is over all things competent (Al-Noor, 24: 45).

This diversity in the movements of organisms reflects its ability to adapt to its different environments and food. We know now that birds walks on two legs, all animals walk on four legs, except the kangaroo, which walks or hops on two legs. However, inhabitants of the Old World continents of Africa, Asia, and Europe did not know about the existence of such animal in Australia, which was discovered about 900 years after this revelation. But Allah, the All-Knowledgeable, told us about it, as yet another piece of evidence that the Holy Quran is His Message to humanity.

===============================================================================================================

Notes: 

[1] The other five verses, which mention the creation of human beings out of the earth matter (dust, dirt, or soil) are 3: 59, 18: 37, 22: 5, 35: 11, and 40: 67.

[2] The following are links to studies, which mention that life on Earth started in clay (water and dirt), as described in Verse 32: 7. 

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/11/131105132027.htm

http://www.natureworldnews.com/articles/4784/20131106/life-evolved-clay-researchers-find.htm

http://www.nytimes.com/1985/04/03/us/new-finding-backs-idea-that-life-started-in-clay-rather-than-sea.html

[3] The following are links to studies, which provide descriptions for the environment, in which life started on Earth. Basically, life started in clay, where water is mixed with the earth dirt, which includes various primary elements, including those with a stinking smell, such as hydrogen sulfides, thus forming the stinking clay, mentioned in Verse 15: 26.  

Sulfur is a basic element, found to be necessary for various life forms. It has a very stinking smell, as a result of its organic molecules, such as hydrogen sulfides, which has the smelling of rotten eggs, swamps, and skunks.

http://undergroundhealthreporter.com/swamp-gas-hydrogen-sulfide/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfur

http://www.water-research.net/index.php/sulfur

[4] Biologists refer to the first stage as unicellular organisms (prokaryotes), and the second stage as multicellular organisms (eukaryotes), which applies to the animal stage. The third stage was that of humans, who waked upright (homo erectus), in which humans became separate from animals. This enabled them to stand and walk on two legs, which enabled them to see more, and consequently to process more information about their environments. See for example Solomon, et al. (2006).

[5]  The meaning of the Arabic word 'adalak in verse 82: 7 as well as the Arabic text of the 'Hadith mentioning it and its interpretation:

"" 82: 7 " ." " ." . "" " ." .   "" : 

" : " ( ).

"" . . . "" : " " ( ).

. . .  

[6]  The average weight of an adult chimpanzee brain is 384 g (0.85 lb), while the average weight of a modern human brain is 1,352 g (2.98 lb). The major reason is that while the chimpanzee brain size does not grow after birth, the human brain size keeps growing throughout childhood (Smithonial Institution, 2018)

Allen et al (2002), studied 46 adults, aged 2249 years, of mainly European descent. They found an average brain volume of 1273.6 cm3 for men, with a range of 1052.9 cm3 to 1498.5 cm3, and 1131.1 cm3 for women, with a range of 974.9 to 1398.1 cm3.

The human brain size, as measured by cranial capacity, kept increasing during the last two million years, as follows:

For homo habilis, who lived 2.3-1.6 million years ago (mya), it was 610.3 cm3. For homo erectus, who lived 1.7-0.2 mya, it was 1,092.9 cm3. For homo heidelbergensis, who lived 800-100 thousand years ago (tya), it was 1,262.8 cm3. For neanderthalensis, who lived 230-30 tya, it was 1,427.2 cm3. For homo sapiens, from 100 tya-present, it has been 1,496.5 cm3.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain_size

Researchers do not use brain size or the ratio of brain size to body size as measures of intelligence. Instead, they use the encephalization quotient (EQ), which is a relative brain size measure that is defined as the ratio between actual brain mass and predicted brain mass for an animal of a given size. Using the EQ measure, humans are shown as the most intelligent specie s on the planet, as their EQ is 6.56. Other mammals have lower EQ scores, such as 5.55 for whale dolphins, 3.5 for macaque monkeys, 2.63 for chimpanzees, and 0.38 for blue whales.

https://io9.gizmodo.com/5890414/the-4-biggest-myths-about-the-human-brain

In addition to the EQ measure, intelligence also has to do with the different components of the brain. Humans have the largest cerebral cortex of all mammals, relative to the size of their brains. This area of the brain houses the cerebral hemispheres, which are responsible for higher functions, such as memory, communication, and thinking.

http://tdlc.ucsd.edu/educators/educators_myths_biggest_brain.html  

[7] The prefrontal cortex

The main functions of the orbital frontal cortex (the ventromedial region of the frontal lobe), the lower surface of the frontal lobe, just behind the eyes,

The frontal cortex is involved in executive control, delayed gratification, long-term planning. The frontal lobes are connected to every other part of the human. Thus, when the frontal lobes get the right input from other parts, they produce the right output.

prefrontal cortex, which is the closest to the forehead, is the center for concentration, logic, creativity, inhibition, delayed gratification, planning, judgment, execution, and expression (Sapolsky, 2005; Allman, 2000).

The human brain evolved in three main historical stages. The first stage is represented by the most interior and lower part of the brain, which is the protoreptilian formation. This part includes basal ganglia, mid-brain, and brainstem. It performs the basic functions of the genetically encoded instinctual action plans, related to primitive survival issues, such as exploration, feeding, aggression, dominance, and sexuality.

The second stage of the human brain evolution is represented by the paleomammalian formation, which surrounds the protoreptalian formation. This part includes the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus and other structures in the so called limbic system). Its main functions are the innate emotional and motivational systems, shaping of behavioral responses to incoming stimuli based on instincts and past experience; mediating the social emotions, playfulness, and maternal nurturance.

The third stage of the human brain evolution is represented by the neomammalian formation (neocortex), which surrounds the paleomammalian formation, constituting the largest proportion of the brain. It performs the various functions related to declarative Knowledge about the world derived especially from sight, sound and touch.

"The degree of mushrooming of the neocortex varies widely among mammalian species, being modest in rodents and reaching massive proportion in the cetaceans (whales and porpoises) and great apes (the gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees) and attaining its pinnacle in humans. It is the storehouse of our cognitive skills" (MacLean, 1990).

In a microscopic study of the human brain has revealed neural structures, enhanced wiring, and forms of connectivity among nerve cells not found in any animal, challenging the view that the human brain is simply an enlarged chimpanzee brain. The study examined eight cognitive cases of teaching, short-term memory, causal reasoning, planning, deception, transitive inference, theory of mind, and language. In all cases, the study found that similarities between animal and human abilities are small, dissimilarities large. There is no disparity between brain and mind. Thus, the mind cognition reflects the material brain capabilities (Premack, 2007).

Morality is supported not by a single brain circuitry or structure, but by several circuits overlapping with other complex processes. However, orbital and ventromedial prefrontal cortices are implicated in emotionally-driven moral decisions, while dorsolateral prefrontal cortex appears to moderate its response (Pascual et al., 2013).

 [8] In Arabic dictionaries, the word nasiya, mentioned in Verses 11: 56 and 96: 15-16,  means the forehead. In his interpretation of Verse 11: 56, Al-Qurtubi also mentioned clearly that the Arabic word nasiya, mentioned in the Verse, means the forehead, which may become a lying and sinning forehead. Here's the Arabic text of his interpretation of the word nasiya (forehead):  

" , , , ; ; : " " ( 96 : 16) ."

The prefrontal cortex (Al-Nasiya):

The orbital frontal cortex (the ventromedial region of the frontal lobe), is located in the lower surface of the frontal lobe, just behind the eyes,

The frontal cortex is involved in executive control, delayed gratification, long-term planning. The frontal lobes are connected to every other part of the human brain. Thus, when the frontal lobes get the right input from other parts, they produce the right output.

The prefrontal cortex (nasiya), which is the closest to the forehead, is the center for concentration, logic, creativity, inhibition, delayed gratification, planning, judgment, execution, and expression (Sapolsky, 2005; Allman, 2000).

 

MRI of orbitofrontal cortex, By Paul Wicks (2003) The brain-basic and limbic system

Evolution of the human brain:

The human brain evolved in three main historical stages. The first stage is represented by the most interior and lower part of the brain, which is the protoreptilian formation. This part includes the basal ganglia, mid-brain, and brainstem. It performs the basic functions of the genetically encoded instinctual action plans, related to primitive survival issues, such as exploration, feeding, aggression, dominance, and sexuality.

The second stage of the human brain evolution is represented by the paleomammalian formation, which surrounds the protoreptalian formation. This part includes the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus and other structures in the so called limbic system. Its main functions are the innate emotional and motivational systems, shaping of behavioral responses to incoming stimuli based on instincts and past experience; mediating the social emotions, playfulness, and maternal nurturance.

The third stage of the human brain evolution is represented by the neomammalian formation (neocortex), which surrounds the paleomammalian formation, constituting the largest proportion of the brain. It performs the various functions related to the declarative Knowledge about the world derived especially from sight, sound, and touch.

"The degree of mushrooming of the neocortex varies widely among mammalian species, being modest in rodents and reaching massive proportion in the cetaceans (whales and porpoises) and great apes (the gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees) and attaining its pinnacle in humans. It is the storehouse of our cognitive skills" (MacLean, 1990).

 

Symbolic representation of the triune brain. P D MacLean (1990).

 

The human brain is different from animal brains:

A microscopic study of the human brain has revealed neural structures, enhanced wiring, and forms of connectivity among nerve cells, not found in any animal, challenging the view that the human brain is simply an enlarged chimpanzee brain. The study examined eight cognitive cases of teaching, short-term memory, causal reasoning, planning, deception, transitive inference, theory of mind, and language. In all cases, the study found that similarities between animal and human abilities are small, dissimilarities large. There is no disparity between brain and mind. Thus, the mind cognition reflects the material brain capabilities (Premack, 2007). Due to a number of subtle differences between human and chimpanzee neural progenitors during cerebral cortex development, it is likely that the human neocortex expansion contributed to the remarkable cognitive abilities of humans (Mora-Bermúdez, 2016).

 

Ancient origins of the cerebral cortex, Kevin Mitchell (2010)

 

[9] Homo sapiens sapiens 

Anthropologists call the current human species "homo sapiens," which means the wise and the reasonable. Homo sapiens are more intelligent, more graceful, and more beautiful than the previous human species. This is evident in the large skull, facial features, and the coordination and proportionality of the human body. New discoveries in Morocco show that it lived there about 300,000 years ago but most estimates mention that this species has been living on Earth for the previous 200,000 years. In about 100,000 years ago, it started to spread to West Asia, then to East Asia, and finally to Europe when its ice glaciers started to recede (See Appendix 2 for more information).

Some researchers argue that the current species (homo sapiens sapiens) has evolved tremendously in comparison with its ancestors (homo sapiens), about 30,000 years ago. This latest evolutionary change happened basically in the brain, particularly in the necortex, which is associated with the complex thinking, distinguishing humans from other mammals. This development in the human brain led to various ways of cultural expression, such as the beautiful paintings on cave walls, depicting animals, plants, and humans. It also led later to the making of tools, weapons, and jewelry.

Thus, this is the fifth stage of creation, in which the Creator's focus was on the human brain. It is likely that Adam appeared during the past 30,000-15,000 years, when humans reached this stage of cultural expression, which enabled them to receive communication from their Creator. During that period, humans were still hunter-gatherers but they started practicing horticulture and pastoralism. However, that was well before the agricultural revolution, which started about 6.000 years ago.

Here are some links about the new homo sapien fossil discoveries in Morocco:

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/06/07/531804528/315-000-year-old-fossils-from-morocco-could-be-earliest-recorded-homo-sapiens

http://www.columbia.edu/itc/cerc/danoff-burg/invasion_bio/inv_spp_summ/homo_sapiens_sapiens.html

https://earlyhumansdiv1.wikispaces.com/Homo+Sapien+Sapien+Clothes

[10] See a description of the fetus external sexual organs development, in words and photos, on the following link:

http://www.baby2see.com/gender/external_genitals.html

[11] For illustrations of the first three stages of the human embryo development, see: The Quran on Human Embryonic Development by Ibrahim, A. and Others, at:

http://www.islam-guide.com/frm-ch1-1-a.htm.

More illustrative video about the stages of the fetus development, with brief definitions, can be accessed at:

https://www.babycentre.co.uk/1-week-conception

See also a research paper in Arabic, titled "Stages of the fetus and blowing of the Spirit" ( ), which also includes illustrative photos, by Abdul Jawwad Al-Sawi, at:

https://www.eajaz.org/index.php/component/content/article/66-Issue-VIII/542-Phases-of-the-fetus-and-breathed

[12] The opinion mentioned by the Encyclopedia Britannica, about Merneptah (1212-1202  BC) as the Exodus Pharaoh, can be accessed at: 

https://www.britannica.com/topic/biblical-literature/Non-European-versions#ref597585

The two books of Maurice Bucaille, about the subject, are:

"Mummies of the Pharaohs: Modern Medical Investigations".

https://www.amazon.com/Mummies-Pharaohs-Modern-Medical-Investigations/dp/031205131X

The Bible, The Quran and Science By Maurice Bucaille

Translated from French by Alastair D. Pannell and the Author

https://archive.org/stream/TheBibletheQuranScienceByDr.mauriceBucaille/TheBibletheQuranScienceByDr.mauriceBucaille_djvu.txt

The Joshua Mark 1250-1200 BC opinion about entry of the Israelites to Palestine is mentioned at: 

https://www.ancient.eu/canaan/

During the 13th Century BC, which is the possible Exodus Century, Egypt was ruled by six kings (pharaohs). These were Ramses I (1295-1294 BC), Seti I (1294-1279 BC), Ramses II (1279-1212 BC), Merneptah (1212-1202 BC), Amenmesse (1202-1200 BC), and Seti II (1200-1194).

Author and source: Joshua J. Mark is a co-founder, editor, and a director of Ancient History Encyclopedia. He argued against the opinion that Ramses II was the Exodus Pharaoh.

https://www.ancient.eu/timeline/pharaoh/

[13] See the following article about the ironized fossils, found in the Mazon Creek area in Illinois, USA, which are displayed at the Illinois State Museum, at:

www.museum.state.il.us/exhibits/mazon_creek/about_mazon_creek.html

See photos of some fossilized organisms in various kinds of rocks, at:

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils   

https://www.google.com/search?q=fossilized+human+skeleton&biw0%3B336

For further discussion about the resurrection of the body and the soul, see Chapter 9, " Mind, Self, Soul, Spirit, and Happiness from an Islamic Perspective"  and Chapter 24, "The Last Day and Its Four Main Events."

 [14] More information and photos about the Japanese macaque monkeys can be found at:

 http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/japanese_macaque.htm.

For information about the relationship between skin color and the human migration away from the equatorial African region, see Scupin (2008: 43-45, 412-439).  

[15] For more information about how different geographical regions are related to the differences in human languages, see Scupin (2008: 96-124). 

[16] For more information about the Sun orbit around the center of our Milky Way galaxy, see the NASA article about the subject, which is published at:

https://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/questions/question18.html

[17] The Arabic dictionary, Al-Jami', mentioned that the Arabic word da'hya means an egg, and even explained it by mentioning it in the context of this Verse (79: 30), referring to the Earth as an egg-shaped:

https://www.almaany.com/ar/dict/ar-ar//

[18] For more information about the Earth climate regions, see the following article:

http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7v.html

See the following links about the egg-shape of Earth:

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/earth-is-not-round/

http://www.answering-christianity.com/egg-shaped_earth.htm

https://www.quora.com/Why-is-planet-Earth-not-a-perfect-sphere

See the following links about the egg-shape of our solar system:

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1031357/Our-solar-egg-shaped-according-distant-space-probe.html

https://www.thunderbolts.info/forum/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?f=3&t=816&sid=8b34cc2c915ff5737f55bf9c266b510c

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Appendix 1

The origins of Life on Earth

The story of life on Earth as told by scientists is identical to that mentioned in the above verses of the Holy Qur'an, which state that life started in wet, warm clay, where water mixed with the Earth's basic elements. This applies to the unicellular prokaryotic cells, which reproduced by division into similar pairs, through the process known as binary fission.

About 3.8 billion years ago, life began to develop on Earth. The atmosphere of early Earth included carbon dioxide, water vapor, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and nitrogen, in addition to other elements. Life was the product of chemical interactions between the Earth elements and energy from the sun, volcanoes, wind storms, and lightening, which produced organic molecules, the necessary building blocks of life.

The first forms of life was the unicellular prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes. The first multicellular eukaryotes (soft-bodied animals) appeared in the ocean about 630 million years ago. This view that life started in water came out as a result of 20th century research conducted by the Russian A. I. Oparin, the Scottish J. B. S. Haldane, and the Americans Stanley Miller and Harold Urey.

Other researchers hypothesized that "early polymerizations leading to the origin of life may have occurred in cracks in the deep ocean floor where hot water, carbon monoxide, and minerals such as sulfides of iron and nickel spew forth. Such hydrothermal vents would have been better protected than Earth's surface from the catastrophic effects of meteorite bombardment. Today, these hot springs produce precursors of biological molecules and energy-rich food, including the highly reduced compounds, hydrogen sulfide and methane."

A different hypothesis about how life started on Earth indicate that life's chemical building blocks (organic polymers) "may have formed and accumulated on rock or clay surfaces, rather than in the primordial seas. Clay, which consists of microscopic particles of weathered rock, is particularly intriguing as a possible site for early polymerizations, because it binds organic monomers and contains zinc and iron ions that may have served as catalysts. Laboratory experiments have confirmed that organic polymers form spontaneously from monomers on hot rock or clay surfaces" (Solomon, Berg, Martin, 2006: 385-387).

The accumulation of organic molecules led to the formation of the protobiont simple pre-cells. But "how pre-cells evolved into living cells remains to be solved." Understanding molecular reproduction provides us with some clues.

Biologists found that genetic information in living cells is stored in the nucleic acid DNA, which is transcribed into messenger RNA, which is translated into the proper amino acid sequence in proteins. Of special importance is the fact that both DNA and RNA can form spontaneously on clay and are capable of self-replication. However, biologists hypothesize that RNA existed on Earth before DNA. So, the self-replicating genetic code, forming on clay, was the link between organic molecules and living cells (Solomon, Berg, Martin, 2006: 388-389).

Then, the genetic information stored in DNA molecules is replicated and passed to new cells during cell division (Solomon, Berg, Martin, 2006: 2, 66). One example of such cell division is the binary fission of prokaryote reproduction (Solomon, Berg, Martin, 2006: 446). This is a process in which one cell divides into two similar cells, as illustrated by the division of bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes photograph on page 435 of Solomon, Berg, Martin (2006: 436).

The oldest fossil cells that are widely accepted are 2 billion years old. However, microfossils discovered in Greenland indicate that there were living prokaryotic cells about 3.8 billion years ago. These cells got their energy supplies from available organic molecules.  Getting energy from sun light needed a mutation. Getting hydrogen by splitting water needed another mutation and a longer time, which was the case with cyanobacteria. These were the photosynthetic organisms, which existed about 3.1 to 3.5 billion years ago.

By 2 billion years ago, cyanobacteria had produced enough oxygen to change the Earth's atmosphere in two major ways. First, new aerobic organisms (aerobes) adapted to the availability of oxygen and used it in more effective production of energy. These organisms produced oxygen and carbon dioxide regularly, which allowed oxygen to continue in existence as a stabilized and renewable element necessary for more efficient production of energy in the biosphere. Second, formation of accumulated oxygen layers in the upper atmosphere formed the ozone layer, which protects inhabitants of Earth from the harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun (Solomon, Berg, Martin, 2006: 389-391). 

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Appendix 2

Stages of the human departure from the ape family

There is no agreement among paleoanthropologists on one theory about the evolution of humans and their departure from their closest relatives, the chimpanzees (as humans share 99% of their DNA with them), in the ape family. However, the competing hypotheses agree on major facts on the basis of the archaeological, particularly fossil, record. Here are the main features of components of these working hypotheses:

I. Sahelanthropus Tchadensis, which was discovered in 2002, indicates a hominid origin dating back to 6-7 million years ago (mya), with some main differences from chimpanzees in the form of a flatter face, different teeth, and a larger brain. However, there is no evidence of walking upright, which is "a hallmark characteristic of hominids," as Verse 82:7 above states.

II. Australopithecines, which include seven main species.

      1.  Ardipithecus Ramidus, which dates back to about 5.8 - 4.4 mya.

     2. Australopithecus Anamesnsis, which dates back to about 4.2 - 3.9 mya, had a mixture of human-like and apelike features. Back teeth and jaws larger than those of chimpanzees, front teeth smaller, was bipedal having an upright posture, the first marked human evolution from the ape family.

     3. Australopithecus Afaresnsis, which dates back to about 4 - 3 mya, the common ancestor of the extinct A. Rubustus and the A. Africanus, had relatively small brain, pronounced supraorbital ridges, a jutting jaw, and a large canine teeth. No evidence of making tools or fire.

     4. Australopithecus Africanus, which dates back to about 3 - 2.4 mya, walked erect, had human-like hands and teeth, ate both plants and animals, had smaller brain than that of present humans but much like that of its primate ancestors.

     5. Australopithecus Aethiopicus, which dates back to about 2.5 - 2.2 mya, the ancestor of the Robustus and

          Boisei extinct branches.

     6. Australopithecus Robustus, which dates back to about 2 - 1.4 mya. Some researchers classify the extinct

          A. Robustus in a separate genus, Paranthropus.

      7. Australopithecus Boisie, an extinct species which dates back to about 2.2 - 1.1 mya.

Summary of the main characteristics of A. Aethipicus, A. Rubustus, and A. Boisie:

These are "larger than A. Africanus and have extremely large molars, very powerful jaws, relatively small brains, and heavy skull crests. Most females lacked the skull crests and had substantially smaller jaws, another example of sexual dimorphism in early hominids. The teeth and jaws suggest a diet, perhaps of tough roots and tubers, that would require powerful grinding. These so-called robust australopithecines may or may not be closely related but are generally thought to represent evolutionary offshoots, or side branches , of human evolution" (Solomon, Eldra P., Linda R. Berg, and Diana W. Martin, 2006: 412).

III. Homo Habilis, which dates back to 2.3 - 1.6 mya, the first hominid to have enough features of the same modern human genus. It was small, with a larger brain and smaller premolars and molars than australopithecine. It left behind sites with primitive tools, stones with sharp edges for cutting and scraping, pebble choppers and flakes. Some researchers argue for classifying it more as australopithecus than as homo.

IV. Homo Ergaster, which dates back to 2 - 1.4 mya, the African ancestor of both Homo Erectus and Homo Heidelbergensis. Thus, it is the ancestor of modern humans.

V. Homo Erectus, which dates back to 1.7- 0.2 mya, is believed by some researchers as the east Asian offshoot of homo ergaster. Many researchers argue that it apparently evolved from homo habilis but it was taller, had a larger brain which kept getting larger. However, it retained some ape characteristics like the heavy suprorbital ridge and projecting face. It was the first hominid to have fewer differences between the sexes. It made more advanced stone tools, known as Acheulean tools, including hand axes, choppers, borers, and scrapers. It lived in northern colder areas, scavenged, hunted, wore clothes, built fire, lived in caves or shelters, and used spears as weapons. Some researchers argue that it went extinct in its east Asian region when more recent humans arrived later. However, there is no consensus on this argument.

VI. Homo Heidelbergensis, which dates back to 800 -100 thousand years ago, the ancestor of both Homo Neanderthalensis and Homo Sapiens. Some researchers call it as archaic Homo Sapiens.

VII. Homo Neanderthalensis, which dates back to 230 - 30 thousand years ago, now extinct. This species lived in Western Asia, then proceeded to Europe as ice glaciers covering the continent receded northward. These early humans, Neanderthals, had short, sturdy builds. Their faces projected slightly, their chins and foreheads receded. They had heavy supraorbital ridges, and jawbones, and their brains and front teeth were larger than those of modern humans. Their nasal cavities were large (in adaptation to the European ice age), and their cheekbones were receding.

There is no consensus among researchers that Neanderthals were a separate species from Homo sapiens. They had more sophisticated (Mousterian) tools than H Erectus, like pointed spears, with which they hunted large animals. They had advanced social cooperation, rituals, and religious beliefs, as evidenced in burials.

About 30,000 years ago, Neanderthals disappeared from the archaeological record. Some researchers argue that they were outcompeted or exterminated by the more efficient Homo sapiens. Support for this hypothesis comes from analysis of the mitochondrial DNA of Neanderthal bones, which showed them as an evolutionary dead end, that did not interbreed with more modern humans.

This hypothesis was challenged by another, based on discovering a skeleton of a 4-year-old child in Portugal, which dates back to 24,500 years ago. The skeleton showed mixed features of both humans and Neanderthals (short lower limb bones). Researchers following this hypothesis argue that there was interbreeding between the two species. However, others still disagree saying that the child represented a normal variation in the human species.

VIII. Homo Sapiens, modern humans, appeared about 100 thousand years ago in Africa and the Middle East. By about 30,000 years ago, Homo sapiens became the only remaining members of genus Homo. Their skull lacked a heavy brow ridge and had a distinct chin.

There are two competing hypotheses about the origin of modern Homo sapiens.

The first is called out-of-Africa, through which researchers argue that Homo sapiens originated in Africa about 200,000 - 100,000 years ago, then spread to the Middle East, Asia, then to Europe.

The second is the multi-regional hypothesis, on the basis of which researchers argue that Homo Erectus spread around the world, then geographical isolation allowed evolution to modern humans. These groups continued to interact and interbreed with one-another, which prevented a complete reproduction isolation, but leading to the present day human regional variations.

Both hypotheses draw support from studies about fossils, molecular biology, and population genetics.

Source: Solomon, Eldra P., Linda R. Berg, and Diana W. Martin (2006: 409-416).

Images from the Smithonian Institute:

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species  

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Fossils in Ironstones (Appendix to Foot Note 13):

Images of human fossils in ironstones:

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils

https://www.google.com/search?q=fossilized+human+skeleton&biw0%3B336

   

Article about fossils in ironstones:

http://www.museum.state.il.us/exhibits/mazon_creek/about_mazon_creek.html

Images of animal fossils in ironstones:

https://www.google.com/search?q=fossils+in+ironstone&biw=1536&bih=729&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=4XPfVP-QK8ONNobPg8AE&ved=0CB0QsAQ


 

Distribution of rainfall and vegetation in the world.

A - Tropical Moist Climates: all months have average temperatures above 18 Celsius. Abundant rain and

        vegetation.

B - Dry Climates: with deficient precipitation during most of the year, leading to least vegetation.

C - Moist Mid-latitude Climates with Mild Winters, leading to more rainfall and more vegetation.

D - Moist Mid-Latitude Climates with Cold Winters.

E - Polar Climates: with extremely cold winters and summers, which makes human life least possible despite the

       availability of water and vegetation .

  1. 7(v) Climate Classification and Climatic Regions of the World

    Apr 16, 2008 ... When studying about the Earth's Climatic Regions as described below, use this animation (Figure 7v-1) as a guide to understanding the large ...
    www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7v.html - 143k - Cached - Similar pages
  2. World Climates

    Köppen divided the Earth's surface into climatic regions that generally coincided with world patterns of vegetation and soils. The Köppen system recognizes ...
    www.blueplanetbiomes.org/climate.htm - 46k - Cached - Similar pages
  3. Image results for climatic regions

     - Report images

    Physical Geography: Climatic Regions

    Climate Regions. Modified Koppen Classification System. Our textbook uses the Koppen classification of world climates

The Egg-Shaped Earth:

  1. http://www.answering-christianity.com/egg-shaped_earth.htm
    Adio of Dr. Muhammed Zaghlool Al-Najjar.




     


    Play NASA-Video of Earth's real shape and rotation

     

    More detailed pictures from the NASA site: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]

      


  2. Voyager pictures reveal Solar System is egg-shaped - Telegraph

    Jul 2, 2008 ... Solar system is egg-shaped. Artist's rendering of Voyager 2 at the ... data back to Earth, long after their original missions ended. ...
    www.telegraph.co.uk/scienceandtechnology/science/sciencenews/3346213/Voyager-pictures-reveal-Solar-System-is-egg-shaped.html - Similar pages

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References:

Allen, JS; Damasio H; Grabowski TJ. 2002. "Normal neuroanatomical variation in the human brain: an MRI-volumetric study." Am J Phys Anthropol. 118 (4): 34158.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12124914   

 Allman, John. 2000. "Evolving Brains." Scientific American Library, W.H. Freeman, updated by Sarah Neena Koch (2011):

http://mybrainnotes.com/memory-language-brain.html

Al-Qurtubi (Muhammed Bin Ahmed Bin Abi Bakr Bin Qaz'h) was born in in the first decade of 7th Hijri Century, in  Qurtuba, Andalusia, and died in Minyat Bani Khaseeb, South Egypt, in 671 Hijriya. His famous work containing an interpretation of the Holy Quran is titled, "Tafseer Al-Qurtubi."  

Al-Tabari (Abu Ja'far Muhammad Bin Jarir) was born in Amol, Tabaristan, of today's Iran, in 224 Hijriyah, 840 Gregorian, and died in Baghdad, in Iraq today, in 310 Hijriyah, 923 Gregorian. He is most known for his famous interpretation of the verses of the Holy Quran, titled as "Jāmi` al-bayān fi ta'wīl āy al-Qurān," popularly known as "Tafsīr Al-Ṭabarī" (Al-Tabari's Interpretation), which took him seven years to finish, from the year 283 until 290 Hijriya.  

Bin (Ibn) Katheer (Abu Al-Fida, Issma'il Bin 'Omar) was born in Majdal, Bussra, South of Syria, in 700 Hijriya but he lived, was educated, and died in Damascus, in 774).  
He is most famous for his work of interpreting the Holy Quran titled, "Tafseer al-Quran Al-'Atdheem," more known as "Tafseer Bin Katheer."  

MacLean, Paul. 1990. "The Triune Brain in Evolution: Role in Paleocerebral Function." Plenum, New York. A summary by Sarah Neena Koch at:

http://mybrainnotes.com/evolution-brain-maclean.html

Mora-Bermúdez, Felipe et al. 2016. "Differences and similarities between human and chimpanzee neural progenitors during cerebral cortex development." NCBI, Volume 5.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5110243/

Pascual, Leo et al. 2013. "How does morality work in the brain? A functional and structural perspective of moral behavior." Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 7: 65.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3770908/  

Premack, David. 2007. "Human and animal cognition: Continuity and discontinuity." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Aug 28; 104(35): 1386113867.  

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1955772/

Quran, The Holy, the Arabic text and English translations, particularly those of Sahih International and Yusuf Ali, published at http://tanzil.net/#1:1 and www.quranexplorer.com.  

Sapolsky, Robert M. 2005. "Monkeyluv and Other Essays on Our lives as Animals." Scribner, New York.

Scupin, Raymond. 2008. "Cultural Anfhropology: A Global Perspective." 7th Edition. New Jersey: Person, Printice Hall.

(This is a textbook used in teaching Cultural Athroplogy on the college level all over the United States. It's a survey of research in the field).

Smithonial Institution. 2018. "Human Characteristics: Brains." Human Origins.

http://humanorigins.si.edu/human-characteristics/brains

Solomon, Eldra P., Linda R. Berg, and Diana W. Martin. 2006. "Biology." 7th Edition. Belmont, CA: Books/Cole-Thomson.

(This is a major biology textbook used in teaching biology on the college level all over the United States. It's a comprehensive survey of research in the field).

Wicks, Paul. 2003. "MRI of orbitofrontal cortex: Approximate location of the orbitofrontal cortex." Wikimedia.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:MRI_of_orbitofrontal_cortex.jpg

 

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About the Author and the Book:

* The author of this book has a Ph.D. in Sociology and a Masters degree in Cultural Anthropology. He was born in Gaza, Palestine, in 1369 Hijriya (1950), but he has been living in the United States since 1986.
 
The authentic Quran Arabic text is used as a reference for the translation of the meanings of the Quran verses, particularly from www.tanzil.net
.

The works of the three renowned Islamic scholars Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer, have been used throughout the chapters of this book, as these are the most credited interpretations of the Holy Quran, for their use of 'Hadith, companions' interpretations, and their thorough knowledge of the Arabic language.

  ( 61: 8).  

They want to extinguish the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah will perfect His light, although the disbelievers dislike it (Al-Saff, 61: 8).

 

Opinions expressed in various sections are the sole responsibility of their authors and they may not represent Al-Jazeerah's.

editor@aljazeerah.info