Al-Jazeerah
Al-Haram Mosque in Makkah The Prophet's Mosque in Madinah . Al-Aqsa Mosque Compound in Jerusalem

 

 

 

Table of Contents

 

I. Introduction: Basic Information

 

1. Islam: A Brief Introduction  

 

2. Three Levels of Faith: Islam, Iman, and Ihsan 

 

3. The Scientific Evidence That God Exists and the Holy Qur'an Is His Message to Humanity 

 

4. Creation and Evolution in the Holy Qur'an

 

5. Humans, As God's Caliphs on Earth

 

6. Adam's Contest With the Angels, and Getting Out of Paradise


7. Worshippers By Choice Or Forced Slaves?
 

 

8. The Relationship Between the Spiritual and the Physical Aspects of Islamic Teachings  

 

9. Mind, Self, Soul, Spirit, and Happiness from an Islamic Perspective 

 

10. Heart-Mind Relationship in the Holy Qur'an  

 

II. Islam: The Five Pillars of the Faith Structure

 

1. Proclamation of Faith

 

2. Performing Islamic Prayers

 

3. Giving Zakah (Charity)

 

4. Fasting the Month of Ramadhan

 

5. Making the Haj (Pilgrimage) Journey 

 

III. Iman: Allah, His Angels, Messengers, Messages, Latter Day, and Qadar

 

1. Allah, As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran 

 

2. Angels

 

3. Noo'h, Noah, in the Holy Quran  

 

4. Ibrahim, Abraham, in the Holy Quran

 

5. Moussa, Moses, in the Holy Quran

 

6. 'Eissa, Jesus Christ, in the Holy Quran  

 

7. Muhammed in the Holy Quran

 

8. Prophet Muhammed's Night Journey and Ascent to Heavens, Al-Issra Wal Mi'raj

 

9. Latter Day (Day of Resurrection)

 

10. Qada and Qadar: God's Foreknowledge and His Decree

 

IV. I'hsan: Watching Allah in What We Say and What We Do

 

1. Introduction to Islamic Law, Shari'a, Part I, Prohibition, Don't Do, and Do Commands in the Holy Quran

 

2. The La (No) Commands

 

3. The Imperative Commands  

 

*** 

 

Links to Islamic Topics 2007-2010

 

Links to Islamic Topics 2007

 

Links to Islamic topics 2006

 

Links to Islamic topics 2005

 

Links to Islamic topics 2004

 

Links to Islamic topics, 2003

 

2002 Links to Islamic topics

 

 

Islam:

God's Message of Guidance to Humanity

 

4.b

 

 The Scientific Connotations in the Holy Quran

 

By Zaghloul El-Naggar

 

12th of Rajab, 1433, June 1, 2012

 

ĂÚćĐ  ČÇááĺ ăä ÇáÔíŘÇä ÇáŃĚíă

ČÓă Çááĺ ÇáŃÍăä ÇáŃÍíă

 

I seek refuge with God from the Stoned Shaitan (Satan)

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

***

 

Dr. Zaghloul El-Naggar is a Professor of Earth Science (Geology),* Head of the Committee on the Scientific Connotations in the Holy Quran and the Sunna, and a fellow of the Islamic Academy of Science, Cairo, Egypt.

 

On his website (elnaggarzr.com/en/index.php), he provides the Verses related to his areas of expertise, showing that only recently we have been capable to understand the scientific components of these verses. This means that the author of the Holy Quran was God, the Knowledgeable One, not a human being on this Earth more than fourteen centuries ago.

 

Dr. El-Naggar classified his work into the Universe, Earth, Plants, Animals, Human Beings, Historical, Legislative, Educational, Medical categories. Here are some examples of his wonderful work, may Allah reward him for that.

 

Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days?

The fact that the universe was created in six days was mentioned in the Holy Qur’an in eight verses where Allah (SWT) says what can be translated as:

1. “Indeed your Lord is Allâh, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He rose and Dominated (Istawâ) over the Throne (in a manner that uniquely suits His Majesty). He brings the night as a veil over the day, seeking it continuously without delay, and (He created) the sun, the moon and the stars subjected to His Command. Surely, to Him is the Creation and Commandment. Blessed is Allâh, the Lord of the ‘Âlamîn (mankind, jinn and all that exists)!” (Surat Al-A'araf, The Heights, Chapter 7, Verse 54 [7: 54]).

2. Surely, your Lord is Allâh Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days and then rose and Dominated (Istawâ ) over the Throne (in a manner that uniquely suits His Majesty), disposing the affair of all things. No intercessor (can plead with Him) except after His Leave. That is Allâh, your Lord; so worship Him (Alone). Then, will you not remember? (Surat Younus, Jonah, Chapter 10, Verse 3 [10: 3]).

3. And it is He, Who has created the heavens and the earth in six Days and His Throne was on the water, that He might try you to know which of you is the best in deeds. …" (Surat Hood, Chapter 11, Verse 3 [11: 3]).

4. (Allah) Who created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them in six Days. Then He Rose and Dominated (Istawâ) over the Throne (in a manner that uniquely suits His Majesty). The Most Gracious (Allâh)! Ask Him (O Prophet Muhammad - pbuh), as He is Al-Khabîr (The All-Knower of everything). (Surat Al-Furqan, The Divider (between right and wrong), Chapter 25, Verse 59 [25: 59]).

5. Allah it is He Who has created the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them in six Days. Then He Rose and Dominated (Istawâ) over the Throne (in a manner that uniquely suits His Majesty). You (mankind) have none, besides Him, as a Walî (protector or helper) or an intercessor. Will you not then remember (or receive admonition)? (Surat Al-Sajda, The Prostration, Chapter 34, Verse 4 [34: 4]).

 

6. "Say (O Prophet Muhammad - pbuh): "Do you verily disbelieve in Him Who created the earth in two Days?

And you set up rivals with Him (in worship)? That is the Lord of the ‘Âlamîn (mankind, jinn and all that exists).

 

He placed therein (i.e. the earth) firm mountains from above, and He blessed it, and assessed therein its sustenance (for its dwellers) in four equal Days (i.e. all these four days were equal in the length of time) for all those who would ask (about its creation).

 

Then He Rose and Dominated (Istawâ) over the heaven when it was smoke, and Said to it and to the earth: "Come both of you willingly or unwillingly." They both said: "We come willingly." 

 

Then He finished from their creation as seven heavens in two Days and He instilled in each heaven its affair. And We (Allah) adorned the nearest (lowest) heaven with lamps (stars) to be an adornment as well as guards (from the devils by using them as missiles against them). Such is the Decree of Him the All-Mighty, the All-Knower.”

(Surat Fussilat, The Detailed, Chapter 41, Verse 9 [41: 9-12]).



7. And indeed We created the heavens and the earth and all between them in six Days and nothing of fatigue touched Us. (Surat Qaf, a letter of the Arabic alphabet with a glottal sound, Chapter 50, Verse 38 [50: 38]).

8. It is He Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days and then Rose and Dominated (Istawâ) over the Throne (in a manner that uniquely suits His Majesty). He knows what goes into the earth and what comes forth from it, and what descends from the heaven and what ascends thereto. And He is with you (by His Knowledge) wherever you may be. And Allâh is the All-Seer of what you do. (Surat Al-'Hadeed, The Iron, Chapter 57, Verse 4 [57: 4]).


Significance of the word “Yawm" (Day), in the Holy Quran

The majority of scholars who have interpreted the meanings of the Quran have agreed that the creation of the heavens and earth in six days came on six stages, or six incidents, or six phases, or consecutive cosmic events. The lengths of which are only known to Allah. They cannot be like our days on earth because the earth was not created yet. That’s why these days were not depicted by the Qur’an description “of what you reckon” that came in many other verses of the Qur’an to indicate our days on earth.

The word “Yawm" (Day) in addition to its derivatives were mentioned 475 times in the Quran; of these it came as “al-yawm: today – this day” 349 times, as “yawman: days” 16 times, which makes a total of 365 times (same number of days per year). It also came as “yawmakum: your days”, “yawmahum: their days”, “yawmayn: two days”, “ayyam: many days”, “ayyaman: few days” 109 times, to indicate specific incidents or specific numbers of days. The two terms “yawma’idhin: that day” and “yawma’idh: on that day” to indicate a specific time.

In the Arabic language, the word “yawm" (day), which becomes "ayyam" (days) in plural, is used to denote the period between two consecutive transits of the sun. In other words, it denotes daytime between two consecutive nights. It also denotes either day and night times (or what’s known as a full day or the “Mean Solar Day”. It is also the period during which the earth travels a full turn round its axis relative to the sun. Further, it is the time span between two consecutive sunsets or sunrises totaling to 24 full hours.

In Arabic also the phrase “since the first days of..” denotes the first days of any specific date or time. Sometimes they use the word “yawm: day” to denote “troubled times” for an individual or for a group of people, like saying: “a day like the days of Aad” ,“a day like the days of Thamud”, “a day like the days of the Arabs”, “a day in lifetime”.

“Day” can be used to denote a certain span of time, no matter what its length. That means that the word “day” from the linguistic point of view is a generic term that varies in its significance according to the context it is placed in.

The word “day” came in the Holy Quran with all these meanings. it came meaning “daytime” in the following verses:

“…but if he cannot afford it, he should observe Saum (fasting) three days during the Hajj…” (Surat Al-Baqara, The Cow, Chapter 2, Verse 196 [2: 196]).

Which Allâh imposed on them for seven nights and eight days in succession … (Surat Al-'Haaqqa, The Inevitable, Chapter 46, Verse 7 [46: 17]).

It came as the typical day of Planet Earth (the interval Earth takes to travel around its axis facing the sun in 24 hours), as in the following verse:

And remember Allâh during the appointed Days. But whosoever hastens to leave in two days, there is no sin on him and whosoever stays on, there is no sin on him, if his aim is to do good and obey Allâh … (Surat Al-Baqara, The Cow, Chapter 2, Verse 203 [2: 203]).

It also came as a specific day of the week as in the following verses:

O you who believe (Muslims)! When the call is proclaimed for the Salât (prayer) on Friday (Jumu‘ah prayer), come to the remembrance of Allâh and leave your trading and business. That is better for you if you did but know! 
(Surat Al-Jumu'ah, Friday, Chapter 62, Verse 9 [62: 9]).

And ask them (O Muhammad - pbuh) about the town that was by the sea; when they transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath (i.e. Saturday): when their fish came to them openly on the Sabbath day, and did not come to them on the day they had no Sabbath. Thus We afflicted them, for they used to rebel against Allâh’s Command (disobey Allâh). (Surat Al-A'araf, The Heights, Chapter 7, Verse 163 [7: 163]).

It also came to denote a specific day of the year like the day of the Hajj (the Day of 'Arafa – or the Ninth Day of Dhul-'Hijjah).

It also came to denote a specific incident in history like: “the Day of the Festival”, “the Day of Overshadowing Gloom”, “the Day of Testing”, “the Day of Hunayn”, “the Day of Disaster”, “the Day of Decision”

It came to denote certain signs of destroying the cosmic system before the Day of Judgment like: “the Day when the earth and the mountains will be in violent shake”, “the Day when the sky will bring forth a kind of smoke plainly visible”, “the Day when the heavens will be in dreadful commotion”

It came to denote a day from the days of Allah Whose span would be beyond our grasp or realization. To make us realize its significance, it was compared to our own years in addition to the Quranic description “of what you reckon”, as in the following verses:

Sűrat Al-Hajj (The Pilgrimage)
47. And they ask you to hasten on the torment! And Allâh fails not His Promise. And verily, a day with your Lord is as a thousand years of what you reckon. (Surat Al-'Haj, The Pilgrimage, Chapter 22, Verse 47 [22: 47]).

He manages and regulates (every) affair from the heavens to the earth; then everything will go up to Him, in one Day, the span whereof is a thousand years of what you reckon (on earth). (Surat Al-Sajda, The Prostration, Chapter 32, Verse 5 [32: 5]).

Thus, the word “Yawm" (Day) came in the Qur’an as meaning "phase, stage, incident or cosmic event" in verses like (Surat al-Araf, Chapter 7, Verse 7; Surat Younus, Chapter 10, Verse 3; Surat Hood, Chapter 11, Verse 7; Surat Al-Furqan, Chapter 25, Verse 59; Surat Al-Sajda, Chapter 32, Verse 4; Surat Qaf, Chapter 50, Verse 38; and Surat Al-Hadeed, Chapter 57, Verse 4.

It also came as meaning the “day of judgment” in different utterances and in different contexts like:

The Day of Requital (yawmud-een)
The Day of Resurrection (yawmuq-qiama)
The Hour (yaumus-saa’)
The Day of Sorting Out (yawmul-fasl)
The Day of Judgment (yawmul-hisab)
The Day of Assembly (yawmuj-jame’)
The Day of Mutual Meeting (yawmut-taq’)
The Day when there will be mutual calling and wailing (yawmut-tana’d)
The Day that is ever drawing (yawmul-azefa)
The day of Testimony (yawmul-ash’had)
The Day of Distress (yawmul-hasra)
The Day of mutual loss and gain (yaumwl-taghabun)
The Day whereof Warning had been given (yawmul-wae’id)
The day of Resurrection from the graves (yawmul-khuruj)
The day of eternal life (yawmul-khulud)

.. And many other meanings denoting the day of resurrection, judgment and eternal life.

Significance of the word “yawm" (day) in Astronomy

The Mean Solar Day, stands for the interval where the earth completes a full turn round its axis relative to the sun. In our times this interval is estimated by 24 hours, shared between both daytime and night time. As for the Sidereal Day (which is about 3 minutes and 56 seconds less than the Solar Day) it can be measured as the interval the interval between two passages of a given star across the observer’s meridian. The small difference between the intervals of both days is due to the fact that while the earth completes a full turn round its axis relative to the sun, it would have covered a distance in its orbit around the sun that could be estimated by 1/365 of the overall length of the orbit’s circumference.

Due to the fact that the earth and all the other celestial bodies in the heavens move in varied speeds and round varied axes.. And due to the fact that each planet has its own physical and orbital elements. Hence, the lengths of these axial and orbital periods would vary from one planet to the other. Consequently, the intervals of days length and year length on each planet would greatly vary from one to the other. So a day length for the planets of the solar system would vary between 58 earth-days (in the nearest planet to the sun, namely, Mercury), to 243 days on planet Venus, to 24 hours on planet earth (divided between the daytime and night time like all planets), to 24 hours and 37 minutes on planet Mars, to 9 hours and 53 minutes on planet Jupiter, to 10 hours - 14 minutes and 24 seconds on planet Saturn, to 17 hours and 14 minutes on planet Uranus, to 16 hours and 6 minutes on planet Neptune.

Also the time span of each year would vary from one planet of the solar system planets to the other depending on the distance of its orbit and the speed in which it covers this distance. For instance, the orbital motion of Mercury round the sun can be estimated by 88 earth-days, whereas that of Venus can be estimated by 224.7 earth-days and that of earth can be estimated by 365.256 days. That of Mars can be estimated by 686.98 earth-days, that of Jupiter can be estimated by 11.86 earth-years and that of Saturn can be estimated by 29.46 earth-years. On the other hand, that of Uranus can be estimated by 84.07 earth-years, that of Neptune can be estimated by 164.81 earth-years and that of Pluto can be estimated by 248.53 earth-years. Whereas, the sun completes one full turn round its axis in 25 earth-days. It further covers a full rotation round the galactic center in 225 million earth-years.
The solar system is but a minute spot in our galaxy (the Milky Way) which in turn is but one galaxy among the local galactic group cluster which in turn constitute but a minute spot of the greater galactic cluster.

This process of being a part of a bigger form goes on till infinity in a universe that has not been yet realized. All of which are constantly moving in the nearest heaven that has been adorned by Allah (Blessed and Exalted be He) with the stars. The nearest heaven, in turn, is constantly moving within the six other heaven.. and truthful is Allah, praise to Him (SWT), as He says:

And verily, a day with your Lord is as a thousand years of what you reckon.”(Surat Al-'Haj, The Pilgrimage, Chapter 22, Verse 47 [22: 47]).

In one Day, the span whereof is a thousand years of what you reckon (on earth)” (Surat Al-Sajda, The Prostration, Chapter 32, Verse 5 [32: 5]).

The angels and the Rűh [Jibrîl (Gabriel)] ascend to Him in a Day the measure whereof is fifty thousand years” (Surat Al-Ma'aarij, The Ways of Ascent, Chapter 70, Verse 4 [70: 4]).


=============================================================================

 

More of Dr. Zaghloul El-Naggar's Works about the scientific connotations in the Holy Quran:

 

 

The Theory of Relativity and Time


In the past, Arabs used distance to denote time like: a one-month walk, a one-week walk or a day’s walk.. Usually walking in this context meant riding camels or walking on foot. In the theory of relativity time is used like the fourth dimension along with the other three known dimensions. One of the ancient Muslim Sufis (Muhyei El-Deen Ibn Al-Arabi) has surpassed Albert Einstein by hundreds of years when he stated the fact that the universe is in an abstract existence when it comes to both (concepts of) place and time. He also preceded him in linking the convexity of the universe to the convexity of time. These issues are considered nowadays to be of the most important results of the general theory of relativity. The Quranic verses describing the “day” as “a thousand years of what you reckon” and in another verse as “fifty thousand years of what you reckon” could be taken as the base of the theory of relativity. Not just that, but the Quran has also mentioned the speed of light in Allah’s saying (Exalted be He):


One with whom was knowledge of the Scripture said: "I will bring it to you within the blink of an eye!" (Surat Al-Naml, The Ants, 27: 40).


Ibn al-Arabi used the light year in the same concept in which it is used nowadays in astronomy and in view of the very same verse mentioned above. At the wake of the (twentieth) century, Albert Einstein announced both the special and the general theory of relativity in 1905 and 1915 (respectively).


The general theory of relativity is based on a postulate that gravity is equivalent to acceleration. It described gravity as a curve caused by mass and energy (and both are two faces for the same coin), in a four-dimensioned universe.

The special theory of relativity is based on two basic postulates (or hypotheses). First, the laws of physics are constant on any still body or any body moving at a constant speed. Second, the speed of light in space remains constant regardless of the speed of the source it started from or the speed of its viewer. It is an absolute speed in any case. So the light coming from a lamp fixed in a train would spread at the same speed whether this train is approaching the viewer or moving away from him.


These two hypotheses aim at having the physical laws (mechanic and electromagnetic) as constant, whether the body they are being measured at is still or moving at a constant speed. This is because motion and stillness are both inconstant in the observed universe, meaning that everything connected to the universe is relative. The sole exception to that is the speed of light because it is constant to the outside viewer and it isn’t affected by both the viewer and the source of the light. The speed of light has been experimentally estimated to be 299,792.5 kilometers/second in space.


The curvature /kairvatshar/ of a beam of light (the curve in its passage) between the sky and the earth has been detected in 1919 and it was proven that the whole universe (matter & energy) is in a curvature (state) and that all forms of matter and energy can never move in straight lines in the universe.

 

Glory be to Allah, Who mentioned in the Holy Quran (more than 1400 years ago) the movement in the sky with the term “uruj: ascending in a curved path” in seven different verses.


The constant speed of light refuted the old assumption that time is absolute. Consequently, this refutes the assumption that this universe is self-ruled. In other words, any absolute ruler for this universe has to be from outside this universe not from within it.

 

This is called the authority of the sole Ruler and Creator (praise to Him in his highness, subhanahu wa ta'ala). It has been proven that the universe is under constant expansion and if we retreat in time with this expansion we will have to reach an extremely minute point with no dimensions and with an infinite (small quantity of) mass and energy. This state that is very close to non-existence (al-ratq’: the single entity of the first material that formed the universe) has exploded by order of the Creator and from this explosion came both the matter and energy (the two faces for the same coin). From it also came time and place (two consecutive existences). All of these were intertwined within themselves and at the same time with the universe and all the other creatures on it, all of which came from non-existence to existence, then they will go to non-existence then existence again. The creator (swt) is above and surrounding all that time (past, present and future), not restricted by any place, nor any time because He created all that. He is neither formed from matter nor energy, because He (swt) is the Creator of all. He is not like any of His creations, and none of His creations can be like Him. He is indeed as He has described Himself:

 

There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer (Al-Shoura, 42: 11).


The theory of relativity clarified the fact that the mass of any moving body increases by the increase of its speed and diminishes (i.e. gets shorter) in the same direction of its movement. When it reaches the speed of light, it totally vanished within itself to be transformed into energy according to this equation:


E = MC2


(where E is energy), M is mass of the body moving at the speed of light, and C is the speed of light).


The theory explains that apart from the speed of light, any TIME in the observed part of the universe is considered to be a relative time depending on the speed of the moving body. The more its speed increases (compared to any other body) the less the impact of time on it. In other words, the percentage between the time for a rocket moving in the sky and the time on earth would increase as the speed of this rocket increases. Till this speed reached 99.995% of the speed of light, at that instant a year at this rocket will be equal to 100 years on earth. So TIME on earth is limited to the standards of earth and is connected to PLACE and SPEED (motion). So it is a relative TIME because a moving body would carry its own TIME with it and every celestial body will remain in motion till a known time.

 

"It is Allah who erected the heavens without pillars that you (can) see; then He sat (established Himself) above the Throne and made subject the sun and the moon, each running [its course] for a specified term. He arranges (each) matter; He details the signs that you may, of the meeting with your Lord, be certain." (Surat Al-Ra'ad, The Thunder, 13: 2) and

 

"And the sun runs (on course) toward its stopping point (destination). That is the measurement (determination) of the Exalted in Might, the Knowing." (Surat Ya Seen, 36: 38).


If we change (the above mentioned) verse 5 Surat Al-Sajda (32: 5) and verse 47 of Surat Al-Hajj (22: 47) into a mathematical equation, we will get the speed of light according to the enclosed chart. Proving that Holy Quran is miraculous in referring to this fact (more than) 1400 years ago. The deducted amount from these two verses matches those of the calculated speed of light (in vacuum) as internationally agreed (with the accepted margin of deviation). Blessed and Exalted be Allah who (revealed this verse of) the Quran more than1400 years ago saying:

 

"He arranges (each) matter from the heaven to the earth; then it will ascend to Him in a Day, the span of which is a thousand years of those which you count." (Surat Al-Sajdah, The Prostration, 32: 5).

 

"And they urge you to hasten the punishment. And Allah will never fail in His promise. And indeed, a day with your Lord is as a thousand years of what you count." (Surat Al-Hajj, The Pilgrimage, 22: 47).


The six days of creation as mentioned in the Qur’an


The mention of these six days came in brief in seven verses in the Quran, and in detail in four other verses, in Chapter 41, named by Allah as Surat Fussilat (They are Explained in detail). Even the name in itself is a miracle because it gives a glimpse about the fact that this Surah talks in detail about the creation of the heavens and earth.

 

This is taken as flagrant proof on the ability of the Creator, the authenticity of the Holy Quran and the message of Prophet Muhammad (pbbuh), that came with the basics of doctrine and the cornerstone of faith. It further proves, the integrity of the revelation and comes as a warning with the stories of the nations that have been annihilated when they disbelieved their messengers, insisted on disobeying Allah and corrupted earth with their sins. It also came to affirm the reward of those who fear Allah and believe in Him, in His Message and in His messengers.


The verses comprise 11 cosmic signs considered to be magnificent signs of the scientific miracles in Holy Quran. The verse is concluded with a promise from Allah to the whole humanity, to the atheists in particular, that close to the Day of Judgment, Allah will reveal some concealed secrets about this universe to all human beings, to assert what came in the Holy Quran (that was conveyed to us by the last of God Messengers, Prophet Muhammad, pbbuh).


The four verses of Sűrat Fussilat (They are explained in detail) (41: 9-12), reveal the fact that the creation of the primary earth preceded the separation of the primary (gaseous) heaven into seven heavens. So Allah revealed the fact that the earth was created in two days (that’s to say in two stages). A day for the “ratq’: the single entity of the first material that formed the universe“ and a day for the “fatq’: dividing apart this single entity“. It also mentions that Allah has placed the mountains as pegs from above, then He blessed it, and assessed therein its sustenance (for its dwellers) in four days (that’s to say four consecutive stages). Then He created the heavens in two days (that’s to say, two stages). Allah is the most able, He says to it: "Be," and it is, so this progressiveness is for an important wisdom that we have to realize. From this wisdom humans have to grasp the essence of the laws of the Creator in His creation, thus applying them in populating earth and performing their duties as vicegerents on it.


The reader might be confused, while reading these verses at the first look, into thinking that the creation of earth alone has lasted six days (that’s to say six stages). In addition to two more days for the creation of the heavens, this will make at the end a total of eight days for the creation of the heavens and earth. This would have clashed with many other verses stating that the creation of the heavens and earth lasted for six days (six stages). Yet, because the creation of heavens and earth was a single intertwined mission this would make the two days in which the earth was created to be the two same days in which the seven heavens were created. This is because the order that came from Allah at the end of these four verses was for both the earth and the heavens, as stated in verse 11:

 

“Then He Rose and Dominated (Istawa) over the heaven when it was smoke, and Said to it and to the Earth: "Come both of you willingly or unwillingly." They both said: "We come willingly.” ( Surat Fussilat, They are explained in detail, 41: 11).


Most Qur’an commentators have however disagreed with this explanation because they considered the two days in which the earth was created inclusive in the four days of placing the mountains, blessing and assessing sustenance. On the other hand, they all agree that the conjunction in this verse (then) doesn’t denote sequence together with the time-delay, but denotes the interval needed for the process of “Istiwa: rising and dominating over the Throne in a manner that uniquely suits Allah’s Majesty” and separation of the seven heavens from the primary smoky heaven. This is because the conjunction (then) here would mean something that has taken place in a later interval. To prove this further, Allah says in Surat An-Nazi‘at, Those Who Pull Out, (Chapter 79: 27-33) what can be translated as:

 

"Are you a more difficult creation or is the heaven that He Constructed?

He raised its ceiling and proportioned it.

And He darkened its night and extracted its morning light

And after that He made the earth egg-shaped.

He extracted from it its water and its pasture,

And the mountains He anchored (inside the earth),

As provision for you and your grazing livestock."

 

(Surat Al-Nazi‘at, Those Who Pull Out, 79: 27-33)


Thus, anchoring the mountains (deep underneath the earth surface, in order to hold it firm), blessing (Earth), and assessing (its) sustenance, (are associated with) the process of “dahu," (making the Earth egg-shaped, which created variation in geographical climate regions, which led to) bringing out the earth's water and pasture. So the two days in which the earth was created (the very same days in which the heavens were created) were the same two days in which the elements of the primary earth were created within the smoky heaven, as stated in verse 47: 11-12.

 

“Then He Rose and Dominated (Istawa) over the heaven when it was smoke, and Said to it and to the Earth: "Come both of you willingly or unwillingly." They both said: "We come willingly.”

And He completed them as seven heavens within two days, and inspired in each heaven its command. And We adorned the nearest heaven with lamps and as protection. That is the determination (decree) of the Exalted in Might, the Knower

 

( Surat Fussilat, They are explained in detail, 41: 1112).

 

To prove this further Allah (praise to Him in His Highness) says:

 

"It is He, Who has created for you all what is on Earth. Then, He rose over (Istawa) towards the heaven and made them seven heavens, and He is Knower of everything." (Surat Al-Baqarah, The Cow, 2: 29).

 

The word “created” here stands for estimating the elements of the earth.

 

***


The six days of creation of the Universe, as viewed by applied sciences

 

1. The stage of the primary cosmic egg, from which all the creation has started. (The word) “ratq" (refers to) the single entity of the first material that formed the universe.


2. Explosion of the primary cosmic egg “fatq," dividing apart this single entity or the smoky stage and the start of expansion.


3. The stage of creating different elements in the smoky universe through the creation of matter and anti-matter, the creation of hydrogen atoms, Helium and some Lithium.


4. The separation of nebulae, each of which started to condense by the force of gravity forming the stars, the sun, the Earth and the rest of the celestial bodies.


5. The stage of (egg-shaping) of the earth, forming its atmosphere, oceans of water and rocks. Then the sheets of rocks started moving to form the oceans, the continents, the mountains and the land. Then the water cycle started and the surface of the earth became almost even, with a store of water under its surface.


6. The stage of creating life from its simplest forms to its diversified categories (creation and evolution).


And Allah knows all about what He created.


Astronomers and astrophysicists estimate the age of the universe to be 10 – 15 billion years. Whereas, geologists estimate the age of this planet to be 4.6 billion years, and this conclusion has been also reached by scientists who analyzed the rocks and the sand they got from the moon, and the age of many other meteors that hit the Earth.

 

It seems that the great difference between the age estimated for planet earth and that estimated for the universe is due to the fact that the estimated age for the earth is the age of solidification of its outside crust. Consequently, this age would not include the stages of the primary earth, nor the stages of creating the elements from which this primary earth was formed.


The verses in both Surat al-Baqarah (2:29) and Surat Fussilat (41: 9 – 12) signify the fact that creating the Earth has preceded the separation of the primary smoky heaven into seven heavens. It is obvious that the creation here was for the elements of the earth, this was followed by the creation of the Earth in the form of a primary planet that was later (fashioned) to take the present (egg-shape, or globe) form. This is because the creation of the heavens and the Earth is an intertwined inseparable process.


Praise be to Allah, who from above the seven heavens, more than 1400 years ago brought forth these decisive verses in the form of a rebuking, disapproving question to all atheists and disbelievers.


"Say (O Prophet Muhammad - pbuh): "Do you verily disbelieve in Him Who created the earth in two Days?

And you set up rivals with Him (in worship)? That is the Lord of the ‘Âlamîn (mankind, jinn and all that exists).

 

He placed therein (i.e. the earth) firm mountains from above, and He blessed it, and assessed therein its sustenance (for its dwellers) in four equal Days (i.e. all these four days were equal in the length of time) for all those who would ask (about its creation).

 

Then He Rose and Dominated (Istawâ) over the heaven when it was smoke, and Said to it and to the earth: "Come both of you willingly or unwillingly." They both said: "We come willingly." 

 

Then He finished from their creation as seven heavens in two Days and He instilled in each heaven its affair. And We (Allah) adorned the nearest (lowest) heaven with lamps (stars) to be an adornment as well as guards (from the devils by using them as missiles against them). Such is the Decree of Him the All-Mighty, the All-Knower.”

 

(Surat Fussilat, The Detailed, Chapter 41, Verse 9 [41: 9-12]).


“Indeed your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the Earth in Six Days, and then He Rose and Dominated (Istawa) over the Throne.” (Surat Al-A'araf, The Heights, 7: 54).

 

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* The two articles of Dr. Zaghloul El-Naggar have been edited by Dr. Hassan El-Najjar, particularly concerning the translation of verses of the Holy Quran. In particular, the author's concept of "spreading" the Earth has been replaced by "egg-shaping of Earth." Words added by the Editor in the article have been placed in parentheses.

For more of Dr. Zaghloul El-Naggar's work, see his website at:


http://www.elnaggarzr.com/en/index.php?ID=3&CatName=Universe

 

http://www.elnaggarzr.com/en/index.php

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