Opinion Editorials, February 2004, www.aljazeerah.info
Hijra: Migration of the Prophet from Makkah to Madina
1 Muharram, 1425 (Feb 21, 2004)
Hijra (Migration From Plot)
The calendar year of Islam begins not with the birthday of our prophet (peace be on him), not from the time that the revelation came to him (Bethat) nor from the time of his ascension to heaven, but with the migration (Hijra) from an undesirable environment into a desirable place to fulfill Allah's command. It was migration from a plot that was set by the leaders of the Quraysh who were plotting to kill prophet Muhammad, and to destroy the truth that today is being conveyed to mankind everywhere against tyranny and injustice. Their purpose was to destroy the foundation of the Islamic state, the Sunnah of the tradition of the prophet, and to prevent the revelation being delivered by Allah's messenger to mankind.
This plot was defeated by the Prophet's migration from Mecca to Medina. So as not to leave the plot unknown, Ali Ibn Abu Talib the fourth Caliph or the first Imam, remained in the bed of our Prophet Muhammad (Peace be on him) in Mecca, to witness that when the truth is conveyed, a plot will be made to counteract against it. It was understood by the leaders of the non-believers, Quraysh, that the message of Islam was and is spreading and that those who have accepted the revelation and the prophecy of the prophet were so strong that no enemy could destroy them.
Such a one was Bilal who was tortured and beaten so much that his breath stopped but when he took his first breath again his breathing was combined with the word "Ahad" (One God). The 'one' that is not after zero and the one that is not going to be two. The belief in the uniqueness of the creator sank into the souls of the companions of the prophet and their life became combined with the understanding of their faith- their life and faith were integrated - neither one was neglected for the benefit of the other. His breath was combined with his creator's name.
Individuals have a "place" according to the materialistic system. One is higher than the other and everyone in the system of "Ism" has a material value. In matters of faith, belief in the creator, has a value which cannot be paid in worldly material. Its place is in paradise. No man can pay that price to any one, and paradise is granted to mankind by Allah alone. Man's struggles for Allah cannot be bought with anything else.
When the Quraysh recognized this great power of faith, they plotted to destroy the foundation of belief. Imam Ali was a witness to this plot, and his descendents were martyrs of the plots of other rulers in the continuation of the confrontation of truth versus the so-called Islamic rulers imposed upon the Muslims.
Imam Ali and the rest of the Imams from the members of the family of our beloved prophet have been martyred, and the process of martyrdom will continue until this recognition comes to the Muslims Umma so that to prevent them from this unjust act of assassination.
The process of "Hijrah" means:
1. Recognition of the plot; 2. Migration from the plot; 3. Leaving witnesses for the plot so that the future generations can learn of and recognize the conspiracy against the faith.
"And the (unbelievers) plotted and planned, and Allah too planned, and the best of planners is Allah." Quran , Sura3, Aya 53.
When the messenger of Allah migrated from Mecca, Ali Ibn Abu Talib remained in the place of our beloved prophet . Ali himself was the victim of that plot finally in Kufa. Not only Ali but his sons, Imam Hassan and Imam Husain, the grandsons of the Prophet, and every one of the Imams were martyrs by the plot. So-called Islamic rulers have murdered the true Imams throughout history until in our own time Sayyed Qutb and Hassan Al Banna were martyred.
After Imam Ali Ibn Abu Talib, every Imam of his family was either imprisoned or killed, not by the non-Muslims and mushrekin of Quraysh, but martyred by the so-called Muslim rulers who were Muslim by name and enemies of Islam by action. Those Muslim rulers that are not ruling according to the law of Allah in the Quran are called disbelievers, wrongdoers, and transgressors. (Sura Al Maidah, Aya 47, 48 and 50). The whole Sura Al Munafiqun is named after these people.
"And whoever did not rule by what Allah revealed those are they that are the unbelievers."Sura 5, Aya 44.
"And whoever did not rule by what Allah revealed those are they that are the transgressors."Sura 5, Aya 45.
"If any do fail to judge by (Quran) what Allah has revealed, they are (no better than) those who rebel (transgressors).Sura Maidah, Aya 50.
From these facts one can realize that if he is following the Quran and the Sunnah, commanding the good and rejecting the evil, he will be confronted by the evil forces with various plots. If in the fulfillment of Islamic duties you are not confronted and harassed as the Prophet was then there is a probability that you are not truly conveying the real message of Islam.
The division of the Muslims started after the battle of Siffien between Imam Ali and Ma'aviah and his appointees. There were Muslims who were the followers of Ma'aviah, and Muslims who were the followers Sunnah and Imam Ali. It is not correct to say that Imam Ali was right and Ma'aviah was right too. Either Imam Ali, who was the cousin of the Prophet, a member of the family in Quran (Ahlul-Bait), and the witness of the conspiracy in Islam was right, or Ma'aviah, son of Abu Sofyan whose appointee was his son Yazid, the murderer of the grandson of our beloved Prophet, Imam Husain. The followers of Imam Ali followed the path of Imam Husain who was martyred by Yazid, son of Ma'aviah and the followers of Ma'aviah followed Yazid, the corrupt ruler of Muslims.
That situation continued for many years. Today when the Muslims regardless of who they were following, became aware and, united together, are against the tyrants of our time and the imposed rulers in our life it is proper to say: watch out for evil so we won't be divided again.
Oh Allah, what I do not know of mistakes, forgive me. My intention is for Your pleasure and my aim is Islam, If my words do not explain my feelings, bless us with understanding.
THE HIJRA CALENDAR
By Abdussattar Ghazali
The Islamic calendar is reckoned from the time of migration (Hijra) of Prophet Mohammad (Peace Be Upon Him) from Mecca to Madina. The Prophet's decision to migrate from Mecca came after several years of inhuman treatment of the faithful by the powerful tribes who were united despite all their feuds to stop the spread of Islam.
Prophet Mohammad's decision to leave Mecca coincided with the infidel's plan to assassinate him. In 622 AD, the Quresh tribesmen held a meeting and decided that a band of young men, one from each tribe, should assassinate Prophet Mohammad collectively so that their responsibility for the murder could not be placed on any particular tribe.
On the eventful night, the Prophet asked his cousin Ali Ben Abutalib to take his place in bed to make the Meccans think that he was asleep. The Prophet himself slipped out unobserved alongwith his loyal follower Abu Bakr (who was chosen as the first C aliph after the death of the prophet). They secretly made their way to a cave named Thawr, not far from Mecca and lay in hiding there for a day or two until Abu Bakr's son reported that the search for him had been given up. Then the two set out from Madina on camel back. They reached Quba, on the edge of the Madina oasis, on 12th Rabiul Awwal. With Mohammad's arrival in Quba a new phase of his career and glory of Islam started.
This migration has a special significance in the history of Islam. It ended the Meccan period of humiliation and torture and began the era of success. His own people to whom he preached Islam for 13 years neglected the Prophet of Islam. But he was cordially received in Madina as an honored chief.
In Madina his power enhanced day by day. Here he was not only the religious leader but took the role of a politician and statesman too. Prophet Mohammad expired ten years after his migration to Madina but only in one decade he changed the course of human history.
In view of this special significance of the Prophet's migration the consultative body advised the Second Islamic Caliph, Omar ben Khattab, to start the Islamic year from the date of migration of the Prophet from Mecca to Madina.
According to early Moslem scholars, Abu Musa Al Shari drew attention of Omar to an improperly dated debenture or IOU which was payable in the month of Shaban but it was not clear which Shaban was actually meant, the present one or the coming one. Omar called the dignitaries for consultation who made several suggestions to begin the Islamic calendar.
Ali (who later became the fourth caliph) suggested the Hijra as the beginning of the Islamic year with Moharram as its first month. Consequently, Caliph Omar in 21 A.H. or 641 A.D introduced the Islamic calendar in its present form.
The guidance about the Islamic calendar is taken from the following verses from the Holy Quran: (In the name of GOD most gracious and most merciful)
"Lo the number of the months with God is twelve months." IX:36.
"They ask thee, of new moons. Say: They are fixed seasons for mankind and for the pilgrimage." II:189.
"He it is who appointed the sun a splendor and the moon a light, and measured for her stages, that ye might know the number of the years, and the reckoning." X:5
The Islamic Calendar of 12 Lunar Months is determined by observation of the new moon with no effort by intercalation (addition) or other means to synchronize the Lunar year with the Solar year.
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