Performance-Based Roadmap to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the
October 28, 2004
The Editor of Al-Jazeerah.info would
appreciate it if readers send a text or a link containing the fourteen
Israeli government reservations on the Roadmap.
United States Department of State, April 30,
The following is a performance-based and
goal-driven roadmap, with clear phases, timelines, target dates, and
benchmarks aiming at progress through reciprocal steps by the two
parties in the political, security, economic, humanitarian, and
institution-building fields, under the auspices of the Quartet [the
United States, European Union, United Nations, and Russia]. The
destination is a final and comprehensive settlement of the
Israel-Palestinian conflict by 2005, as presented in President Bush’s
speech of 24 June, and welcomed by the EU, Russia and the UN in the 16
July and 17 September Quartet Ministerial statements.
A two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict will only
be achieved through an end to violence and terrorism, when the
Palestinian people have a leadership acting decisively against terror
and willing and able to build a practicing democracy based on
tolerance and liberty, and through Israel’s readiness to do what is
necessary for a democratic Palestinian state to be established, and a
clear, unambiguous acceptance by both parties of the goal of a
negotiated settlement as described below. The Quartet will assist and
facilitate implementation of the plan, starting in Phase I, including
direct discussions between the parties as required. The plan
establishes a realistic timeline for implementation. However, as a
performance-based plan, progress will require and depend upon the good
faith efforts of the parties, and their compliance with each of the
obligations outlined below. Should the parties perform their
obligations rapidly, progress within and through the phases may come
sooner than indicated in the plan. Non-compliance with obligations
will impede progress.
A settlement, negotiated between the parties, will result in the
emergence of an independent, democratic, and viable Palestinian state
living side by side in peace and security with Israel and its other
neighbors. The settlement will resolve the Israel-Palestinian
conflict, and end the occupation that began in 1967, based on the
foundations of the Madrid Conference, the principle of land for peace,
UNSCRs 242, 338 and 1397, agreements previously reached by the
parties, and the initiative of Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah – endorsed
by the Beirut Arab League Summit – calling for acceptance of Israel as
a neighbor living in peace and security, in the context of a
comprehensive settlement. This initiative is a vital element of
international efforts to promote a comprehensive peace on all tracks,
including the Syrian-Israeli and Lebanese-Israeli tracks.
The Quartet will meet regularly at senior levels to evaluate the
parties' performance on implementation of the plan. In each phase, the
parties are expected to perform their obligations in parallel, unless
Phase I: Ending Terror And Violence,
Normalizing Palestinian Life, and Building Palestinian Institutions --
Present to May 2003
In Phase I, the Palestinians immediately undertake an
unconditional cessation of violence according to the steps outlined
below; such action should be accompanied by supportive measures
undertaken by Israel. Palestinians and Israelis resume security
cooperation based on the Tenet work plan to end violence, terrorism,
and incitement through restructured and effective Palestinian security
services. Palestinians undertake comprehensive political reform in
preparation for statehood, including drafting a Palestinian
constitution, and free, fair and open elections upon the basis of
those measures. Israel takes all necessary steps to help normalize
Palestinian life. Israel withdraws from Palestinian areas occupied
from September 28, 2000 and the two sides restore the status quo that
existed at that time, as security performance and cooperation
progress. Israel also freezes all settlement activity, consistent with
the Mitchell report.
At the outset of Phase I:
Palestinian leadership issues unequivocal statement reiterating
Israel’s right to exist in peace and security and calling for an
immediate and unconditional ceasefire to end armed activity and
all acts of violence against Israelis anywhere. All official
Palestinian institutions end incitement against Israel.
Israeli leadership issues unequivocal statement affirming its
commitment to the two-state vision of an independent, viable,
sovereign Palestinian state living in peace and security alongside
Israel, as expressed by President Bush, and calling for an
immediate end to violence against Palestinians everywhere. All
official Israeli institutions end incitement against Palestinians.
Palestinians declare an unequivocal end to violence and terrorism
and undertake visible efforts on the ground to arrest, disrupt,
and restrain individuals and groups conducting and planning
violent attacks on Israelis anywhere.
Rebuilt and refocused Palestinian Authority security apparatus
begins sustained, targeted, and effective operations aimed at
confronting all those engaged in terror and dismantlement of
terrorist capabilities and infrastructure. This includes
commencing confiscation of illegal weapons and consolidation of
security authority, free of association with terror and
GOI takes no actions undermining trust, including deportations,
attacks on civilians; confiscation and/or demolition of
Palestinian homes and property, as a punitive measure or to
facilitate Israeli construction; destruction of Palestinian
institutions and infrastructure; and other measures specified in
the Tenet work plan.
Relying on existing mechanisms and on-the-ground resources,
Quartet representatives begin informal monitoring and consult with
the parties on establishment of a formal monitoring mechanism and
Implementation, as previously agreed, of U.S. rebuilding, training
and resumed security cooperation plan in collaboration with
outside oversight board (U.S.–Egypt–Jordan). Quartet support for
efforts to achieve a lasting, comprehensive cease-fire.
All Palestinian security organizations are consolidated into
three services reporting to an empowered Interior Minister.
Restructured/retrained Palestinian security forces and IDF
counterparts progressively resume security cooperation and other
undertakings in implementation of the Tenet work plan, including
regular senior-level meetings, with the participation of U.S.
Arab states cut off public and private funding and all other forms
of support for groups supporting and engaging in violence and
All donors providing budgetary support for the Palestinians
channel these funds through the Palestinian Ministry of Finance's
Single Treasury Account.
As comprehensive security performance moves forward, IDF withdraws
progressively from areas occupied since September 28, 2000 and the
two sides restore the status quo that existed prior to September
28, 2000. Palestinian security forces redeploy to areas vacated by
Immediate action on credible process to produce draft constitution
for Palestinian statehood. As rapidly as possible, constitutional
committee circulates draft Palestinian constitution, based on
strong parliamentary democracy and cabinet with empowered prime
minister, for public comment/debate. Constitutional committee
proposes draft document for submission after elections for
approval by appropriate Palestinian institutions.
Appointment of interim prime minister or cabinet with empowered
executive authority/decision-making body.
GOI fully facilitates travel of Palestinian officials for PLC and
Cabinet sessions, internationally supervised security retraining,
electoral and other reform activity, and other supportive measures
related to the reform efforts.
Continued appointment of Palestinian ministers empowered to
undertake fundamental reform. Completion of further steps to
achieve genuine separation of powers, including any necessary
Palestinian legal reforms for this purpose.
Establishment of independent Palestinian election commission. PLC
reviews and revises election law.
Palestinian performance on judicial, administrative, and economic
benchmarks, as established by the International Task Force on
As early as possible, and based upon the above measures and in the
context of open debate and transparent candidate
selection/electoral campaign based on a free, multi-party process,
Palestinians hold free, open, and fair elections.
GOI facilitates Task Force election assistance, registration of
voters, movement of candidates and voting officials. Support for
NGOs involved in the election process.
GOI reopens Palestinian Chamber of Commerce and other closed
Palestinian institutions in East Jerusalem based on a commitment
that these institutions operate strictly in accordance with prior
agreements between the parties.
Israel takes measures to improve the humanitarian situation.
Israel and Palestinians implement in full all recommendations of
the Bertini report to improve humanitarian conditions, lifting
curfews and easing restrictions on movement of persons and goods,
and allowing full, safe, and unfettered access of international
and humanitarian personnel.
AHLC reviews the humanitarian situation and prospects for economic
development in the West Bank and Gaza and launches a major donor
assistance effort, including to the reform effort.
GOI and PA continue revenue clearance process and transfer of
funds, including arrears, in accordance with agreed, transparent
Continued donor support, including increased funding through PVOs/NGOs,
for people to people programs, private sector development and
civil society initiatives.
GOI immediately dismantles settlement outposts erected since March
Consistent with the Mitchell Report, GOI freezes all settlement
activity (including natural growth of settlements).
Phase II: Transition -- June
In the second phase, efforts are focused on the option of creating an
independent Palestinian state with provisional borders and attributes
of sovereignty, based on the new constitution, as a way station to a
permanent status settlement. As has been noted, this goal can be
achieved when the Palestinian people have a leadership acting
decisively against terror, willing and able to build a practicing
democracy based on tolerance and liberty. With such a leadership,
reformed civil institutions and security structures, the Palestinians
will have the active support of the Quartet and the broader
international community in establishing an independent, viable, state.
Progress into Phase II will be based upon the consensus judgment of
the Quartet of whether conditions are appropriate to proceed, taking
into account performance of both parties. Furthering and sustaining
efforts to normalize Palestinian lives and build Palestinian
institutions, Phase II starts after Palestinian elections and ends
with possible creation of an independent Palestinian state with
provisional borders in 2003. Its primary goals are continued
comprehensive security performance and effective security cooperation,
continued normalization of Palestinian life and institution-building,
further building on and sustaining of the goals outlined in Phase I,
ratification of a democratic Palestinian constitution, formal
establishment of office of prime minister, consolidation of political
reform, and the creation of a Palestinian state with provisional
- International Conference: Convened by the
Quartet, in consultation with the parties, immediately after the
successful conclusion of Palestinian elections, to support
Palestinian economic recovery and launch a process, leading to
establishment of an independent Palestinian state with provisional
- Such a meeting would be inclusive, based on the goal of a
comprehensive Middle East peace (including between Israel and
Syria, and Israel and Lebanon), and based on the principles
described in the preamble to this document.
- Arab states restore pre-intifada links to Israel (trade
- Revival of multilateral engagement on issues including
regional water resources, environment, economic development,
refugees, and arms control issues.
New constitution for democratic, independent Palestinian state is
finalized and approved by appropriate Palestinian institutions.
Further elections, if required, should follow approval of the new
Empowered reform cabinet with office of prime minister formally
established, consistent with draft constitution.
Continued comprehensive security performance, including effective
security cooperation on the bases laid out in Phase I.
Creation of an independent Palestinian state with provisional
borders through a process of Israeli-Palestinian engagement,
launched by the international conference. As part of this process,
implementation of prior agreements, to enhance maximum territorial
contiguity, including further action on settlements in conjunction
with establishment of a Palestinian state with provisional
Enhanced international role in monitoring transition, with the
active, sustained, and operational support of the Quartet.
Quartet members promote international recognition of Palestinian
state, including possible UN membership.
Phase III: Permanent Status Agreement and
End of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict -- 2004 – 2005
Progress into Phase III, based on consensus judgment of Quartet,
and taking into account actions of both parties and Quartet
monitoring. Phase III objectives are consolidation of reform and
stabilization of Palestinian institutions, sustained, effective
Palestinian security performance, and Israeli-Palestinian negotiations
aimed at a permanent status agreement in 2005.
Second International Conference: Convened by
Quartet, in consultation with the parties, at beginning of 2004 to
endorse agreement reached on an independent Palestinian state with
provisional borders and formally to launch a process with the
active, sustained, and operational support of the Quartet, leading
to a final, permanent status resolution in 2005, including on
borders, Jerusalem, refugees, settlements; and, to support
progress toward a comprehensive Middle East settlement between
Israel and Lebanon and Israel and Syria, to be achieved as soon as
Continued comprehensive, effective progress on the reform agenda
laid out by the Task Force in preparation for final status
Continued sustained and effective security performance, and
sustained, effective security cooperation on the bases laid out in
International efforts to facilitate reform and stabilize
Palestinian institutions and the Palestinian economy, in
preparation for final status agreement.
Parties reach final and comprehensive permanent status agreement
that ends the Israel-Palestinian conflict in 2005, through a
settlement negotiated between the parties based on UNSCR 242, 338,
and 1397, that ends the occupation that began in 1967, and
includes an agreed, just, fair, and realistic solution to the
refugee issue, and a negotiated resolution on the status of
Jerusalem that takes into account the political and religious
concerns of both sides, and protects the religious interests of
Jews, Christians, and Muslims worldwide, and fulfills the vision
of two states, Israel and sovereign, independent, democratic and
viable Palestine, living side-by-side in peace and security.
Arab state acceptance of full normal relations with Israel and
security for all the states of the region in the context of a
comprehensive Arab-Israeli peace.
Released on April 30, 2003
Israel's acceptance of the roadmap with 14
reservations May 27, 2003
Primary themes of Israel's remarks
1. Both at the commencement of, and during the
process, and as a condition to its continuance, calm will be
maintained. The Palestinians will dismantle the existing security
organizations and implement security reforms during the course of
which new organizations will be formed and act to combat terror,
violence and incitement (incitement must cease immediately and the
Palestinian Authority must educate for peace).
These organizations will engage in genuine
prevention of terror and violence through arrests, interrogations,
prevention and the enforcement of the legal groundwork for
investigations, prosecution and punishment. In the first phase of the
plan and as a condition for progress to the second phase, the
Palestinians will complete the dismantling of terrorist organizations
(Hamas, Islamic Jihad, the Popular Front, the Democratic Front, Al-Aqsa
Brigades and other apparatuses) and their infrastructure; collection
of all illegal weapons and their transfer to a third party for the
sake of being removed from the area and destroyed; cessation of
weapons smuggling and weapons production inside the Palestinian
Authority; activation of the full prevention apparatus and cessation
There will be no progress to the second phase
without the fulfillment of all above-mentioned conditions relating to
the war against terror. The security plans to be implemented are the
Tenet and Zinni plans. [As in the other mutual frameworks, the roadmap
will not state that Israel must cease violence and incitement against
2. Full performance will be a condition for
progress between phases and for progress within phases. The first
condition for progress will be the complete cessation of terror,
violence and incitement. Progress between phases will come only
following the full implementation of the preceding phase. Attention
will be paid not to time lines, but to performance benchmarks (time
lines will serve only as reference points).
3. The emergence of a new and different
leadership in the Palestinian Authority within the framework of
governmental reform. The formation of a new leadership constitutes a
condition for progress to the second phase of the plan. In this
framework, elections will be conducted for the Palestinian Legislative
Council following coordination with Israel.
4. The Monitoring mechanism will be under
American management. The chief verification activity will concentrate
upon the creation of another Palestinian entity and progress in the
civil reform process within the Palestinian Authority. Verification
will be performed exclusively on a professional basis and per issue
(economic, legal, financial) without the existence of a combined or
unified mechanism. Substantive decisions will remain in the hands of
5. The character of the provisional Palestinian
state will be determined through negotiations between the Palestinian
Authority and Israel. The provisional state will have provisional
borders and certain aspects of sovereignty, be fully demilitarized
with no military forces, but only with police and internal security
forces of limited scope and armaments, be without the authority to
undertake defense alliances or military cooperation, and Israeli
control over the entry and exit of all persons and cargo, as well as
of its air space and electromagnetic spectrum.
6. In connection to both the introductory
statements and the final settlement, declared references must be made
to Israel's right to exist as a Jewish state and to the waiver of any
right of return for Palestinian refugees to the State of Israel.
7. End of the process will lead to the end of
all claims and not only the end of the conflict.
8. The future settlement will be reached through
agreement and direct negotiations between the two parties, in
accordance with the vision outlined by President Bush in his 24 June
9. There will be no involvement with issues
pertaining to the final settlement. Among issues not to be discussed:
settlement in Judea, Samaria and Gaza (excluding a settlement freeze
and illegal outposts); the status of the Palestinian Authority and its
institutions in Jerusalem; and all other matters whose substance
relates to the final settlement.
10. The removal of references other than 242 and
338 (1397, the Saudi Initiative and the Arab Initiative adopted in
Beirut). A settlement based upon the roadmap will be an autonomous
settlement that derives its validity therefrom. The only possible
reference should be to Resolutions 242 and 338, and then only as an
outline for the conduct of future negotiations on a permanent
11. Promotion of the reform process in the
Palestinian Authority: a transitional Palestinian constitution will be
composed, a Palestinian legal infrastructure will be constructed and
cooperation with Israel in this field will be renewed. In the economic
sphere: international efforts to rehabilitate the Palestinian economy
will continue. In the financial sphere: the
American-Israeli-Palestinian agreement will be implemented in full as
a condition for the continued transfer of tax revenues.
12. The deployment of IDF forces along the
September 2000 lines will be subject to the stipulation of Article 4
(absolute quiet) and will be carried out in keeping with changes to be
required by the nature of the new circumstances and needs created
thereby. Emphasis will be placed on the division of responsibilities
and civilian authority as in September 2000, and not on the position
of forces on the ground at that time.
13. Subject to security conditions, Israel will
work to restore Palestinian life to normal: promote the economic
situation, cultivation of commercial connections, encouragement and
assistance for the activities of recognized humanitarian agencies. No
reference will be made to the Bertini Report as a binding source
document within the framework of the humanitarian issue.
14. Arab states will assist the process through
the condemnation of terrorist activity. No link will be established
between the Palestinian track and other tracks (Syrian-Lebanese).